GEOGRAPHY Past Paper 2nd year 2011 (Regular) Karachi Board


1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:

(i) The per population density of the world in 2010 A.D. was:
* 95
* 75
* 49
* 25

(ii) This Indian region is famous for tea plantation:
* Hyderabad Deccan
* Assam
* Bengal
* Maharashtra.

(iii) The world leader in iron-ore production is:
* Canada
* Brazil
* U.S.A
* China.

(iv) Commercial use of natural gas was first practiced in 1820 A.D. in: .
* Russia
* U.S.A.
* Germany
* Iran

(v) This country produces 99.5% of its power requirements through hydro-electricity:
* Norway
* Sweden
* Canada
* Cuba

(vi) Qadirabad Barrage is built on this river:
* Jehlum
* Chenab
* Indus
* Ravi

(vii) Southern Punjab and Sindh are the major areas of the cultivation of this crop:
* Rice
* Sugarcane
* Cotton
* Tobacco

(viii) This pass connects Chitral and Peshawar:
* Lowari Pass
* Khyber Pass
* Tochi Pass
* Gomal pass

(ix) It is the coldest place in Pakistan:
* Murree
* Abbotabad
* Naran
* Skurdu

(x) The climate of Pakistan is:
* Hot and dry
* Hot and humid
* Very hot
* Cool and dry

(xi) Trade is an example of:
* Tertiary activity
* Primary activity
* Secondary activity
* Quadrennial activity

(xii) The largest palm oil producing country in the world is:
* Malaysia
* Indonesia
* India
* Afghanistan

(xiii) This region is leading the world in rice cultivation:
* North Africa
* Southern Europe
Monsoon Asia
* North America

(xiv) It was discovered in 1492 A.D. through Atlantic Ocean route:
* Antarctica
* Australia
* America
* North Pole

(xv) Rubber is planted here:
* Polar region
* Equatorial region
* Mountainous region
* Temperate region


2. Attempt any Five of the following.

(i) Explain the terms Renewable Natural Resources & Non-renewable Natural Resource.

ANSWER: Natural resources are either RENEWABLE or NON-RENEWABLE. Non-renewable natural resources are listed as: fossil fuels, oil, coal, copper, diamonds, natural gas, iron ore, minerals, gold, silver, platinum, rocks, and many more. Once non-renewable resources are removed it will take . a very, very long time, if ever, to replace them. We certainly will not see it again in our lifetime or that of the next generation.

Renewable. resources, on-the-other-hand, can be replaced in a relatively short period of time or used through conservation efforts without depleting the resource. We consider renewable natural resources to be: animals, insects, reptiles, plants, trees, water, grass, solar and wind energy. Yes, water is considered a renewable resource! Even though the same amount of water is on the earth TODAY, as there was when the earth was formed, only 3% is actually in a useable state. The rest is either too salty or frozen in polar packs. That 3% is renewable through the.water cycle, but we still need to conserve our water use and be careful not to waste water or any of our natural resources.

(ii) Climate does not greatly influence industrial development. Comment.

ANSWER: Climate change impacts are expected to reduce projected global output by one to two per cent by 2050, with main declines seen in developing regions. The impacts of climate change itself will have relatively modest impacts on aggregate trade, since this is increasingly manufacturing and services-oriented. Business-as-usual projections suggest that global trade will be reduced by some three to four per cent by 2050,mainly as a result of reduced output. Of particular concern to Africa is the anticipated reduction in agricultural outputs due to climate changes, which would reduce export crops and increase dependency on food imports. The currently expanding tourism industry in Africa (five per cent of global) is expected to decline with higher fuel prices.

One of the clearest impacts of climate change will be on trade infrastructure and routes. Port facilities, as we” as buildings, roads, railways, airports and bridges are at risk of damage from rising sea levels and the increased occurrence of instances of extreme weather, floods and storms. In addition, fuel prices are likely to change significantly in the future, making some existing trade uneconomic but also opening up new possibilities.

(iii) Rubber is a plant of equatorial region.Comment.

ANSWER: Please see Q.2 (ii) of 2014 Private

(iv) Explain the role of transport network in the development of mining in any area.

ANSWER: Transportation within the mines and to the places of demand was also a serious concern. Indeed, since only human and horse transport was available raw ores underwent primary processing at the mines just because of the restrictions of transportation. The opening of the railway solved this problem.

The possibility of development of transportation within mines from manual labours to horsepower and then to tramcars depended on the physical nature of the mine, the height and width of its shafts, and the design of the route. The full development of a mine with a unified transportation system connecting all the main shafts and its branches would be possible only by implementing modern mining methods. Investments for geological surveys, ranging from the traditional “mountain diagnosis” (the old method of looking over an area and choosing a site according to “feel”) to modern boring and feasibility surveys, have to be done in advance, but these were all beyond the scope and financial capacity of the subcontracted mine operators.

(v) What is meant by E-Commerce? How does it operate?


E Commerce stands for Electronic Commerce, which is in itself a broad term for selling on the internet through a website, electronically. With the ability to process credit cards electronically on the internet, just about anything can be sold on the web. More and more people are buying online and enjoying the benefits of convenience and lower prices. Online stores are often able to reduce prices because they are able to eliminate overhead such as having to pay employees to run a brick and mortar store. In a busy world like ours, convenience is’ everything! Shipping times are so fast now that when an item is ordered online it can often be at the buyer’s doorstep the next morning.

E Commerce websites are built differently, but they all use the same basic functions. The ability to accept credit cards is very important. When a purchase is made the money will be transferred directly into your businesses’ bank account. When an order is placed, the customer’s purchase and payment information will come into your administration section. You will login with your desired username and password to view this information. Through the admin section you will also be able to add new products, update products, and maintain your whole website.

(vi) The largest tea producers have no role in world tea trade. Comment.

ANSWER: Ultimately the options for tea producers to improve their livelihoods are limited. Increasing productivity and reducing the costs of inputs can help to some extent. But producers will still be vulnerable to impacts of climate change as well as global reductions in tea price. The only way to create long term security for tea producers is to increase their negotiating power so as to shift the value chain in their favor. Harriet Lamb, Executive Director, Fair-trade Foundation says:

‘It is our ambition to re-balance the power in the supply chain so that tea workers and farmers become price-makers rather than price-takers in the long run’.

Currently, there are 93 Fair-trade certified tea producers but they are only able to sell a small proportion of their tea on Fair-trade terms as there is not enough consumer demand for Fair-trade tea. Director of United Nilgiri Tea Estates in India, Mr. Pinto said: ‘We would love to sell all our tea as Fair-trade tea. That is not only good for the company as it yields higher prices but especially for the workers. Look what has been accomplished with the premium money and imagine what would happen if all our tea was sold as Fair-trade. Major changes could be achieved. The future faced by tea growers and workers is not just in the hands of a few companies and the changing climate. It is in our hands also. If we all demanded Fair-trade tea for our daily cupper, we could start to tip the balance in favor of tea producers in Asia and Africa. Fair-trade is the only independent assurance that workers have a voice within the value chain and that small farmers livelihoods are more secure.

(vii) Explain the importance of Electronic media in the world.

ANSWER: There are many different ways in which people communicate such as, through the phone, through personal encounters, and by attending work place, school, seminars etc. Though media is not the only communication medium used to dispense the flow of information, its importance in developed countries is worth mentioning as it has been the <maln source to inform people on political issues or current affairs as well as being as the main source of entertainment. The flow of information from one geographical location to another has increased in speed considerably with the advent in digitally enabled communication devices. Different network channels over cable or satellite TV, newspapers and radio channels are emerging at a ‘very rapid pace providing the people with a medium to connect themselves with the outside world. Print media has always been a dominant medium throughout the decades in the western civilization, but it is the emergence of the television which has become the backbone of the global commercial development. Television contains the ability to produce multimedia content and thus has the immense power to·change an individual’s perception of reality. It is of no wonder that in order to believe in something-, one has to have complete faith in the source of information. This. source of information could be ranging from one person to any academic institution. However in today’s connected society it is the media, which has become the main source of information.

(viii) Describe three main types of chemical fertilizer.

ANSWER: Please see Q.2 (v) of 2014 Regular

Chemical fertilizers promote plant growth and are produced by a chemical process. Chemical fertilizers are less bulky ‘than natural fertilizers such as manure or compost. There are many different types of chemical fertilizers and they come in powder, granular, liquid and gas forms.

Sodium Nitrates:
Sodium nitrates contain 16 percent nitrogen and also are known as Chilates or Chilean nitrate. They are useful in soil that is acidic.

Ammonium Sulphate:
Ammonium sulphate comes in a white crystal form, similar to salt. It contains about 20 percent ammoniacal nitrogen and has an acidic effect on the soil.

Ammonium Nitrate:
Ammonium nitrate comes in a form similar to ammonium sulphate but it contains about 34 percent nitrogen. It acts quickly on the soil but can’t be stored for very long.

3. Answer any 4 part questions. No answer should exceed 8 – 10 lines.

(i) Into how many climatic, regions may Pakistan be divided

ANSWER: Pakistan is situated in the north of tropic of cancer. Pakistan is a sub-tropical country. It is situated in the western part of the monsoon region. Some of the areas in the north of Pakistan is warm and mist, whereas the mountainous area have highland type climate.

Pakistan is divided into following regions on the basis of its climate.
1. Sub-Tropical Continental highland
2. Sub-Tropical Continental plateau
3. Sub-Tropical Continental
4. Sub-Tropical Coast land

(ii) Write the names of any four right bank tributaries of river Indus,

ANSWER: Please see Q. 3(v) of 2012 Private

(iii) What is the importance of Monsoon rainfall for Pakistan

ANSWER: The relative importance of data on winter snow accumulation and summer (monsoon) rainfall for estimating annual runoff in the Jhelum River basin, Punjab Himalaya, Pakistan, has been investigated. Strong correlations were found between point measurements of the annual maximum of snow pack water equivalent and of total winter precipitation in the Kunhar sub basin, and total annual discharge. In addition, total winter snowfall showed a generally significant correlation with annual discharge. Elevation did not appear to play a strong role in determining the usefulness of these measurements, whereas location within the basin relative to large scale precipitation patterns did, in some cases. Monsoon rainfall appeared to be a very poor indicator of annual discharge. The results also suggest that the operation of a continental scale negative feedback mechanism between Eurasian snow cover and the Indian monsoon might be felt in this region of the Himalaya.

(iv) Balochistan constitutes 43.6% of the total area of Pakistan. Explain the reasons of its low population.

ANSWER: Balochistan is situated on the southwest of Pakistan and covers an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190 km2), thus constituting  4% of Pakistan’s total land mass and making it Pakistan’s largest province by area.

The population density is very low due to the mountainous terrain and scarcity of water. As of the 1998 census, Balochistan had a population of 8 million inhabitants, representing approximately 5% of the Pakistani population. Official estimates of Balochistan’s population grew from approximately 7.45 million in 2003 to 7.8 million in 2005.

(v) Write a note on the Nuclear power plants of Pakistan.

ANSWER: As of 2009, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 3 licensed-commercial nuclear power plants. Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely responsible for operating these power plants. As of 2009, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly 2% of electricity generated in Pakistan, compared to 65% from fossil fuel and 33% from hydroelectric power. Pakistan is one of the four nuclear armed states (along with India, Israel, and North Korea) that is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is a member in good standing of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

(vi) What is food Autarky? What is the present position of Pakistan in food autarky?

ANSWER: Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue its activities without external assistance or international trade. Wide fluctuations in world prices of food-grains, especially rice and wheat, in the seventies and the early eighties forced many developing countries to strive for self sufficiency in food-grain production. Pakistan is among the countries where near self-sufficiency was achieved in wheat in the early eighties. It also maintained its status as a leading rice-exporting country. However, a continuously high rate of population growth, a changing pattern of income distribution, and a greater level of urbanization have greatly influenced the demand for food-grains.

(vii) Describe the means of Irrigation practiced in Pakistan.

ANSWER: Please See Q. 3(i) of,2013 Private


4. Attempt any two part questions.

(i). Give an account of the distribution of cotton textile industry in the world.

ANSWER: The main countries in which the Cotton Textile Industry is concentrated are as follows:

China: China is the largest producer of cotton textile. China has a huge population and has become self sufficient in her requirements. Shenghai is the chief centre of the textile industry. Others included Tienstin, Tslnqtao, Hankow and Canton.

India: Mumbai is most ideal place for the textile industry. The first mill was established in Mumbai. About 50% of the mills are situated in Mumbai.. Kolkota is the second largest centro Other important centres include Ahmedabad, Poona, Kanpur, Chenai, and Delhi. India is not self sufficient in her requirements and has to import large quantity annually.

USSR: The cotton textile industry has been flourishing in Kazaikistan, and Ukraine area. Some cotton textile products are also being manufactured in Moscow, Tashkent and Samerqand.

U.S.A: It is important cotton textile producing country of the world. The states of Rhode Island and Massachusetts have an important position in the cotton textile industry. The main centers in this region are Boston, Waterbury, and New Bedford.

Japan: Japan was the first among the Asian countries, which got top position in cotton textile within a few years. Although raw material is not available but modern means of production have increased its importance. The main centers of cotton textile industry are Osaka, Negoya, Tokyo, and Yokohama,

Pakistan: Pakistan has not only become self sufficient in her cotton textile requirements. It has also become one of the largest exporters of cotton and other products. The main centers are Karachi, Faisalabad, Multan, Hyderabad, Rawalpindi, and Kotri etc.

Britain: Large scale production of cotton textiles with the help of machines took place in Britain. The main center of cotton textile is Manchester, and Lancashire, produces 90% of  the country’s cotton goods. Other important centers include Midland, West Riding, and Scotland.

Brazil: It is leading producer of. cotton textile in South America. The main cotton textile centers are Rio-de Janeiro, . Saupaulo and Mnas Gareas.

Egypt: Cotton textile has recently developed in Egypt with the help of Japan. Alexandria, Cairo and Sue are the main centers of production.

Other important countries include South Africa, Nigeria, Italy, West Germany, Spain, France, Turkey, Indonesia, and Belgium.

1. China 300.0
2. India . 268.0
3. Japan 245.0
4. Russia 230.0
5. USA 224.0
6. Hong Kong 114.0
7. Pakistan· 61.0
8. UK 54.7
9. Brazil 52.4
10. Egypt 43.0

(ii) Discuss the factors that influence the development of fishing industry in any area.

ANSWER: Fish likes the cool climate; so cool climate of the temperate belt prevents the plankton and other fish food from decaying rapidly. So there is abundance of fish food that is why cool regions have abundance of fish. The cool climate preserves the fish from decay for long time, then the warm climate, fish can not be preserved without refrigeration for a certain period in warm regions.

Physical Factors:
(i) Fish food:
All marine life depends on a very minute vegetable life, called Plankton. The animal plankton lives on vegetable plants. These minute plant have the power of absorbing the dissolved nitrogenous compounds, mineral salt and carbon dioxide, the last two are in abundance in the sea. The factors limiting the growth of vegetable plankton are considerable. Plankton Is generally confined to levels relatively near the surface, which are penetrated by the sunlight. Thus it happens that the marine animal life gathers largely in the shallow seas, covering continental shelves to obtain its food. That is the reason why the most profitable fisheries are found in waters less than 100fathoms deep.

2. Condition of coastline:
The indented or broken coastlines are mostly suited for fishing industry, because such type of coastline provides facilities for the construction of harbors, which provide shelters to the fishermen at the time of storms.

3. Topography of land:
In those countries where topography of the land is not suited for agriculture, there main occupation of the people is fishing. Such as in Norway or in New found-land.

4. Nearness of forest:
Forest supply wood for the construction of boards, baskets for catching &. packing the fish rackets for drying fish.

Economic Factors: .
1. Cheap Labour:
Cheap labour is essential for the growth of fishing industry and more profit also be achieved.

2. Efficent Marketing:
Fish being much more perishable than meat, so its early marketing can give more profit to its industry.

3. Use of scientific methods:
The use of steamers-trawlers and other mechanical devices have revolutionized the fishing industry.

(iii) China, Brazil and Australia together produce more than 55% of the world’s iron-ore. Write a note on the distribution of iron-ore in these countries.

ANSWER: Iron Ore Industry is a concept that contains iron ore mining, quarrying, crushing, grinding, iron ore beneficiation, ore reduction, iron ore transporting, trading, primary production, iron ore prices, iron ore production plant, wholesale , iron ore shipping, ore slag recycling, pollution solution, iron ore specific solution, etc.
Iron Ore Mining:
Mine Production (2009): 2356t
Major Countries: China, Brazil, Australia
Major Companies: Vale (formerly CVRD), BHP Billiton, Rio Tinto
Key Uses: Steel industry
Main process: Drilling, Blasting, Excavation.

Iron Ore Crushing & Screening:
In earlier mechanized opencaat mines, processing involved was crushing to required size and separation of various products by dry screening. With the increasing emphasis on cleaner product, wet screening has come in vogue in place of dry screening. Small capacity crushers have now given place to large capacity crushers with improved reduction ratio. From Jaw crushers, mine operations have switched over to gyratory and cone crushers where closely sized materials are required. Since steel plants are switching over to sinter, iron ore fines are now finding market and full recovery of these fines, classifiers, hydro cyclones and filters are increasingly used. For obtaining iron ore concentrates from low grade ore various processing routes of gravity separation, flotation and magnetic separations are in practice through out the world and India too.

Iron Ore Haulage and Transportation:
At global level,’ high horse power (2400hp) and large capacity dumpers up to 350T have already been in service in advanced countries, trolley assisted dumpers of 120 T and unto 170 T are in use in view of the spiralling fuel costs, faster cycle and better productivity.

Iron Ore Prices:
Iron Ore trading especially iron ore price is a world trading issue for all the iron consumption countries. Iron Ore prices are expected to rise during the 2010 through 2011 period. Expected price increases are anticipated to range between 10% up to 60%, ‘in some cases, as new contracts for iron ore delivery are negotiated.

This is good news for all iron ore miners, as it will continue their growth period forward.

The three largest iron ore companies in the world are: Vale, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton. Vale is a Brazilian mining corporation while Rio Tinto and BHP BilJiton are Anglo- Australian. These three countries are known as the “Big Three” and collectively control 61% of the world seaborne trade of iron ore.

The Iron Ore Producers World Map shows the countries producing the maximum quantity of iron ore. As the map shows, China is the world’s largest producer of iron-ore producing 900 million metric tones of iron ore every year. It is also by far the largest consumer and importer of the same.

(iv) Write physical and economic factors necessary for the cultivation, of wheat in the world.

ANSWER: Wheat is the principal bread cereal of temperate regions. It is most valuable of all the cereals. Its high gluten content, superior quality grain and ease of storage make wheat important food stuff, Wheat cultivation is done throughout the world.

The origin of wheat is lost in antiquity. It is believed, that it originated in Asia Minor and the Middle East. from here cultivation was gradually spread to various other countries. Cultivation of wheat depends upon the following geographical and economic factors.

Wheat can be grown in a wide range of climatic and soil conditions than any other crop. Wheat cultivation requires:

(a) a moderate rainfall of about 35-45 cms. An excess moisture is harmful for the growth of the crop.
(b) a temperature of at least 10-15°C at the time of growing and 19°C and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening and harvest of the crop.
(c) A long growing season, approximately 100 days free from frost.
(d) A wide variety of soils. ranging from heavy clay, clay loam or alluvial to black earths.
(e) Level and gently rolling topography provides adequate drainage and facilitates use of modern farm technology.
(f) The use of machines,manures and fertilizers, high yielding variety seeds, pesticides, assured means of irrigation, development of means of transportation, crop rotation, dry farming methods in regions of deficient rainfall where irrigation cannot developed, marketing facilities and Government policies, arc some of the other factors which boost wheat production.

Through generations of research and selection, hundreds of varieties have been developed to suit local conditions. Broadly speaking, wheat is classified according to its season of sowing, as winter wheat and spring wheat.

5. Answer any One part question.

(i) Give an account of the occupational structure of the people of Pakistan.

ANSWER: Occupational choice plays an important role in determining earnings and success in the labour market. In the social structure of Pakistan, an occupation reflects the ,socioeconomic status of the individual. In this backdrop, the paper looks at the occupational structure and analyses how different characteristics help individuals to access jobs of their choice. The main issue discussed in the paper is how men and women have a different occupation distribution. Estimates are based on a multinomial log model of occupation choices for men and women, using the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) 2001-02 data. The empirical results show that individuals with high educational achievements choose highranking jobs. It is also noted that gender has a role in the labour market and males are sorted out in high-paying occupation. Occupational choice is influenced more by the human capital variables than by the individual characteristics. Among human capital variables, education has the strongest impact in the selection of an occupation of choice.

The occupational segregation on the basis of gender affects the socioeconomic status of the women. The existence of gender inequalities in educational achievements, skills, and earnings are the reflection of the occupational segregation [ILO (2003)]. Chang (2000) points out that the gender based segregation reduces women’s opportunities for labour force participation, restricts their career advancements, and widens the gap in earnings. The low participation of female constrains the economic development of country because the economic well being of population is determined by the proportion of the population participating in the economic activities [World Bank (2004)].

The Pakistani labour market provides a typical picture of an LDe with low participation of females in economic activities along with occupational segregation. The economy is primarily ‘based on the agriculture activities which is the backbone of industrial sector. The Labour Force Survey 2001-02, which is latest data set available on labour statistics, reveals that a large proportion of both men and women are employed in agriculture related occupations. The proportion of females is higher (60.5 percent) than males (35.4 percent) because agriculture sector provides flexibility of hours as well as opportunity to work close to home. The distribution of workers in other occupations show that females are concentrated in Service related occupations (23 percent) including teaching (12.3 percent) and health services (2.3 percent) whereas majority of males are found in production related occupations (28.1 percent). A high percentage of males are also found in managerial and administrative occupations (18.7 percent).’ Average earnings in different occupations are presented in Table 1 for both male and female workers. In general ‘female earnings are lower than male earnings.

For comparison purpose, we calculated the relative earnings of females to males and the data shows that females earn 83 percent of the male earnings at overall level. When compared with previous studies, the gender gap in earnings has. narrowed down over the years 5 The occupation specific earnings are high in male dominated .occupations as compared to occupations with female concentration. The highest gap in earnings is found in agriculture where women earn 34 percent of the male earnings. As mentioned earlier, this might be misleading because of the nature of job taken by females from that of males in the agriculture (and production). The lowest gap is found in teaching where females earn 88 percent.

The study reported a gender gap of 19 percent earnings in 1992 and 24 percent in 1998-99which is higher than the gap of 17 percent by the present study.

Table 1

(ii) Name the main gas fields of Pakistan and explain the use of natural gas in different industries.


Kadanwari Gas Field located in the Middle Indus Basin of Pakistan,

Qadirpur Gas Field is a joint venture between Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL), Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Company Pakistan B.V. (KUFPEC), PKP Exploration Limited (PKPEL, a subsidiary of Premier Oil Pic) and Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL).

Sawan Gas Field is a located in Sindh, Pakistan. It is a joint venture of OMV Pakistan, ENI Pakistan, PPL, Moravske naftove doly and Government Holdings (Private) Limited. Sui gas field is the biggest natural gas field in Pakistan. It is located near Sui in Balochistan “The Toot Oilfield is an oilfield in the Potohar Plateau of .northern Pakistan.

Natural gas has a multitude of industrial uses, including providing the base ingredients for such varied products as plastic, fertilizer, anti-freeze, and fabrics. In fact, industry is the largest consumer of natural gas, “accounting for 43 percent of natural gas use across all sectors. Natural gas is the second most used energy source in industry, trailing only electricity. Lighting is the main use of energy in the industrial sector, which accounts for the tremendous electricity requirements of this sector.

Although industry accounts for a great deal of natural gas consumption in Pakistan, this industrial consumption is concentrated in a relatively small number of industries. Natural gas is consumed primarily in the pulp and paper, metals, chemicals, petroleum refining, stone, clay and glass, plastic, and food processing industries. These businesses account for over 84 percent of all industrial natural gas use.

Industrial Applications: Industrial applications for natural gas are many. Industrial applications include those same uses found in residential and commercial settings – heating, cooling, and cooking. Residential uses, commercial uses. Natural gas is also used for waste treatment and incineration, metals preheating (particularly for iron and steel), drying and dehumidification, glass melting, food processing, and fueling industrial boilers. Natural gas may also be used as a feed stock for the manufacturing of a number of chemicals and products. Gases such as butane, ethane, and propane may be extracted from natural gas to be used as a feed stock for such products as fertilizers and pharmaceutical products.

Natural gas as a feed stock is commonly found as a building block for methanol, which in turn has many industrial applications. Natural gas is converted to what is known as synthesis gas, which is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon oxides formed through a process known as steam reforming. In this process, natural gas is exposed to a catalyst that causes oxidization of the natural gas when brought into contact with steam. This synthesis gas, once formed, may be used to produce methanol (or Methyl Alcohol), which in turn ‘is used to produce such substances as formaldehyde, acetic acid, and MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) that is used as an additive for cleaner burning gasoline. Methanol may also be used as a fuel source in fuel cells.

In addition to these uses, there’ are a number of innovative and industry specific uses of natural gas. Natural .gas desiccant systems, which are used for dehumidification, are increasingly popular in the plastics, pharmaceutical, candy, and even recycling industries. In each of these industries, moisture filled air can lead to damage of the end product during its manufacture. For example, in the plastics industry, moisture can cause cracks and blemishes during the manufacture of certain types of plastics. Adding a natural gas desiccant system to the manufacturing or drying environment allows industrial users to regulate more closely the amount of moisture in the air, leading to a more consistent and high quality product. Natural gas absorption systems are also being used extensively in industry to heat and cool water in an
efficient, economical, and environmentally sound way. These industrial absorption systems are very similar to those used in commercial settings.

Posted on January 5, 2016 in 2nd Year 2011 Karachi Board Past Papers

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