GEOGRAPHY Past Paper 2nd year 2012 (Regular) Karachi Board

SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)

1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:

(i) North West Pakistan & Afghanistan is the native land of:
* Rice
* Sugar cane
* Cotton
* Wheat

(ii) Construction is an example of the following commercial activities:
* Tertiary
* Primary
Secondary
* Quaternary

(iii) Dogar bank is famous for:
* Maximum Interest Rate
* Fishing Activity
* Offering Commercial Loans
* None of these

(iv) About 80% of this power is produced in Europe and North America:
* Nuclear
* Hydroelectric
* Solar
* Thermal

(v) In the world, about one third of total fish is caught in:
* North East Asia
* South Asia
* Polar Regions
* Mediterranean Region

(vi) Cotton was cultivated for the first time in:
* Middle Eastern Countries
* Indo-Pak sub continent
* European Countries
* Far Eastern Countries

(vii) Linear plantation is a type of:
* Irrigated Forest
* Bela Forest
* Coastal Forest
* Natural Forest

(viii) Climate of Srilanka is:
* Hot & dry
* Very hot
* Hot & ‘humid
* Cool & dry

(ix) The Amazon basin is situated in this continent:
* Europe
* South America
* Africa
* North America

(x) Tea plantation is found in the hills of the following areas:
* Hot & dry
* Hot
* Dry
Hot and Humid

(xi) The biggest industry of Pakistan is:
* Iron & steel
* Cotton textile
* Sugar
* Cement

(xii) Coal stone (Minerals coal) was used for the first time in:
* Germany
* China
* India
* U.S.A.

(xiii) Truck farming is a type of:
* Shifting Cultivation
* Market Gardening
* Mixed Farming
* Mechanized Farming

(xiv) Weber’s model is about the location of:
* Grasslands
* Deserts
Industries
* Cities

SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)

2. Attempt any Five of the following.

(i) Write the basic functions of a fertilizer.

ANSWER: “Fertilizers are chemical compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, sodium, which are essential for the growth and development of crops.”

Fertilizers are generally inorganic salts such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, triple phosphate and potassium nitrate etc. Urea is organic in nature. Fertilizers makeup’ deficiency of soil, keep it slightly alkaline or neutral. It should be noted down that the soil having pH below 3 or above 10 is sterile. Furnish adequate supply of the elements to the plants to become fertile again. Supply of necessary food. Maintain pH of soil in between 7.00 to 8.00.

(ii) What are the major differences between Economic activities & Commercial activities?

ANSWER: Please see Q. 2(i) of 2013 Private

(iii) ‘Farming is not practiced in polar and desert regions’. Comment.

ANSWER: Farming is not practiced in the Polar Regions because of the harsh weather conditions like extremely low temperatures, and the snow. You could try it in the warmer seasons, but fishing and hunting would be much easier. Many plants especially ones that are harvested don’t like it there because of low temperatures, and the snow and can’t grow there. There would be very little nutrients if a plant was there. However, algae and moss grow there, but they are not edible.

Farming isn’t practiced in the desert regions because of it’s temperatures an it’s deadly contrast in climate changes. Desert soil is very dry and it doesn’t hold the appropriate nutrient value for ordinary’ crops to be grown. Also the scorching heat is not a favorable condition for crops to be grown.

(iv) Which region of the world is the, front runner in rubber production nowadays? Write three points in·support of your answer.

ANSWER: The Top 5 Rubber Producing Countries, with production in 2010 in metric tons.
1. Thailand 3,166,910 m/t
2. Indonesia 2,921,872 m/t
3. Malaysia 1,072,400 m/t 4
4. India 819,000 m/t 5
5. Viet Nam 659,600 m/t
Blessed with natural and man-made advantages, Thailand has developed into the world’s largest producer” and exporter of natural rubber. The country turns out more than a million metric tons of natural rubber annually, and progress in the industry remains vigorous. Perfectly positioned to lead, Thailand rose to prominence because of ‘its abundant resources of natural rubber, cost- effective workforce, and strategic location in the Asia-Pacific region. According to the Thai Rubber Association, the Asia- Pacific currently accounts for 57% of global rubber demand and will remain the world’s strongest growth area through at least 2013. This represents continued lucrative opportunities for Thai rubber businesses.

(v) The sugar industry is located close to the sugarcane plantation because of several factors. List any four factors for this.

ANSWER: Due to the high temperatures in the areas where cane is produced, workers need to consume large quantities of liquid.

Fumes and gases such as carbon dioxide, ‘sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrochloric acid may be given  off at various stages of the refining process. The high temperatures of processing can also result in fumes and steam that are not only irritating or hot, but sometimes can be , toxic as well.

In some areas of the mill, there are excessive noise levels.

Bagassosis is an occupational lung disease of the extrinsic allergic alveoli is type, caused by breathing dusts containing spores of thermopile actinomycetes which grow in stored, mouldy bagasse. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis can also result from this exposure.

(vi) State four points for the importance of the study of Commercial Geography for the commerce students.

ANSWER: The study of commercial geography is extremely beneficial for a’commerce student.
(i) Commerce students aim at achieving a respectable position in the business society. The study of commercial geography broadest his mind and help him to select the tight track.
(ii) As a trader or industrialist he should know in which venture to invest, how much to invest so as to get maximum return.
(iii) Students should know about the main trade routes of the world, the best means of transport and communication to be used,
(iv) He should know where the raw materials for a particular industry are available.

(vii) Why are temperature leader in wheat exports? reasons)

ANSWER: Wheat farming is carried out in the temperate grasslands of South America because the warm temperate continental climate is_suitable for growing wheat. Also, beef cattle rearing are practiced there because the open grasslands provide good natural pastures for beef cattle.

Wheat-sheep farming is practiced in the temperate grasslands of Australia because wheat and sheep can get benefits from each other sheep feeds on the stalks of wheat and it provides manure for the wheat fields. However, farmers in the past had to face the problem of drought which ‘was solved by the Snowy Mountains Scheme that diverts water from the Snowy River to the Murray-Darling Basin through tunnels later.

(viii) ‘USA and Canada are both importers and exporters of Iron Ore’. Comment.

ANSWER:
Domestic Production and Use:
In 2004, almost all of the usable ore, having an estimated value of $1.6 billion, was shipped from mines in Michigan and Minnesota. Ten iron ore production complexes with 10 mines, 8 concentration plants, and 8 palletizing plants were in operation during the year. The mines included 10 open pits and no underground operations. Virtually all ore was concentrated before shipment. Eight mines operated by three companies accounted for 99% of production. The United States produced 4% of the world’s iron ore output and consumed about 5%.

Imports of iron ore-products in the Canada-U.S. market are split 70% for agglomerates (i.e., pellets) and 30% for agglomerates (i.e., concentrates). American, Canadian, and Venezuelan producers are the main competitors in this pellet market, while Brazilian, Canadian, Venezuelan, and Australian producers battle for the concentrate market.

3. Answer any 4 part questions. No answer should exceed 8 – 10 lines.

(i) Draw a sketch to show the physical regions of Pakistan.

ANSWER:
Physical regions of Pakistan and their sketch can be described as following:
(1) Mountainous Regions:
(i) The Northern and North Eastern Mountains.
(ii) The North Western and Western Mountains.
(2) Plateaus:
(i) The Potwar Plateau Salt Range.
(ii) The Baluchistan Plateau
(3) The Plains:
(i) Upper Indus Plain (ii) Lower Indus Rlain
(iii) Indus Delta Plain
(4) The Deserts:
(i) Thai Desert.
(ii) Nara and Tharparker Desert
(iii) Cholistan Desert
(iv) kharam Changai Desert.

(ii) ‘Run of water and dams are the two ways to produce hydroelectricity’. Explain the statement.

ANSWER:
Hydro power depends on two factors:
The amount of electricity a hydro plant produces depends on two factors:
• quantity of water moving through a turbine (volume of water flow)
• height from which the water falls (the greater the height, the greater the potential energy source). This is called the “head”
Generally, the greater the flow and head, the more electricity can be produced.

Hydro provides flexibility:
Hydro plants are unique among energy sources for their operational flexibility. If there is an increased electricity demand, plant operators release more water from the dam. On the other hand, when demand is slow, they store water for future needs.

The flow of rivers varies from season to season. Usually, rivers have the highest flows in spring or early summer. For that reason, hydro plants often store surplus water during high flow periods for use during low flow periods. This allows generator!! to control their electrical output over the year.

(iii) Why is Quetta not suitable for cotton textile industry? (Give any four reasons)

ANSWER:
1. Cotton requires damp climate Quetta can’t provide that.
2. Temperature of about 80 F to 100 F and Quetta does not have.
3. It requires 30 to 40 inches annual rain fall and Quetta is less then 20 inches of rainfall.
4. Alluvial soil having a mixture of clay and sand is suitable for cotton and the soil of Quetta does not this type of soil.

(iv) Write a note on sugar cane growing regions of Pakistan.

ANSWER:
Sugarcane is an important industrial and cash crop in Pakistan and in many countries of the world. It is grown in tropical and sub-tropical region’s of the world in a range of climates from hot dry environment near sea level to cool and moist environment at higher elevations. Sugarcane growing areas in Pakistan fall between 24° N latitude in Sindh to 34° N latitude in N.W.F.P. These areas can be broadly divided in to
(i) Sub-tropical, irrigated with -moderate temperature frost free zone between 26° N latitude to 30° N latitude,
(ii) Irrigated arid sub-tropical zone between 24°N latitude to 26° N latitude, iii) and temperate zone of northern Punjab and N.W.F.P. between 32°N latitude to 34°N latitude.

Sugarcane production trends:
Sugarcane is grown on an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan. The Punjab shares 62 %, Sindh 26 % and N.W.F.P. shares 16 % of the total area. The national average cane yield (- 47 t ha-1) is far below the existing potential (Table 2). In respect of cane yield Sindh with 53 t ha is the leading province followed by N.W.F.P. (45 t ha”) and Punjab (40 t ha’ ).

(v) Write the names of four Barrages built on the left bank tributaries of River Indus.

ANSWER:
In the plains, its left bank tributary is Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Satluj. Its principal right bank tributaries are Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Gomal and Kurram.

(vi) ‘Karachi records. lower temperature in summer, and higher in winter as compared to Lahore’. Comments.

ANSWER: Karachi has two main seasons; Summer & Winter, while spring and autumn are very short. Summer season persists for longest period during the year. The level of precipitation is low for most of the year. Less precipitation during summer is due to inversion layer. Karachi also receives the monsoon rains from July to September. (From the end of April till the end of August) are approximately 30°C (86 OF)to 36 °C (97 OF),the winter months (From November till the end of March) are the best time to visit Karachi.

Lahore features a hot semi-arid climate with rainy, long and extremely hot summers, dry and warm winters, a monsoon and dust storms. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when the temperatures soar to 40-48 °C (104-118 °F).

(vii) Canal irrigation system causes loss of water and water logging and salinity’ Comment.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 5(ii) of 2014 Private

SECTION C (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTIONS)

4. Attempt any two part questions.

(i) Draw a chart to show the classification of commercial activities. Give a comparative analysis of tertiary commercial activities in the developed and developing countries.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 4(iii)(a) of 2013 Reg.

(ii) Give a detailed account on any two of the following petroleum producing regions.
(a) South West Asia
(b) American regions
(c) North Africa

ANSWER:
(a) South West Asia:
In terms of oil reserves, the Middle East is second to none. This “oil miracle” of the world has been shaped by a set of favorable factors, some global and others local, inscribed in the geologic history of the region.

The term “Middle East” is not without problems. First, it has colonial connotations, as the term first appeared in the mid-nineteenth century as part of the Europe-centered division of the East into the Near, Middle and Far East. Second, there is no consensus on the geographic extent of the Middle East. Some define it as the region between India and Egypt, in which case it has been aptly designated by the United Nations as Western Asia. Other definitions also add North Africa or central Asia.

For the purpose of this article, the term “Middle East” focuses on the oil-rich countries in southwest Asia including Iran, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Yemen. These ten countless together have an area of 5.1 million square kilometers or ‘!bout 3.4% of Earth’s land surface, but they possess 60% of world’s known oil reserves and 41% of natural gas reserves.

60% of the world’s known oil reserves:
From time to time, regions such as the Caspian or West Africa have been fantasized as “another Middle East” but none has materialized, which begs this important question: Why is there so much oil in the Middle East? This article synthesizes our knowledge about this question and briefly describes the geological factors for the abundance of oil in the Middle East.

(b) American regions:
North America has been more thoroughly explored for oil and gas than any other continent; hence, a review of its geology with reference to occurrence of petroleum can be useful in a discussion of general regional evaluation. Major North American geologic provinces include: 1) a craton or central stable region, 2) orthogeosynclines which surround or nearly surround the craton, 3) local sedimentary basins which have developed upon the orthogeosynclines, and 4) marginal coastal plains Tertiary and ‘Cretaceous strata of the western Gulf Coastal plain comprise the most prolific petroleum province in North America. The Arctic Coastal plain contains oil and gas in Alaska but has not been explored in Canada. The E. Gulf and Atlantic plains await further search. Extracarbonic Tertiary (and closely associated older) rocks in the Gulf Coast and California have yielded more oil and gas than rocks of all other ages in North America, but the carton has
nevertheless produced very large quantities from strata of all ages younger than Precambrian in a wide array of trap types extending over half the continent. Regional geologic synthesis finds application to exploration for oil and gas in any region but is most useful on the’ North American carton. These patterns control the location of large fields of oil and gas pools. Typical geological controls are: 1) regional faces change as in the Clinton field in eastern Ohio or the Hugoton pool in Kansas-Oklahoma-Texas, 2) ancient offshore bars as in eastern Kansas and Oklahoma, 3) reefs, as in Utah, W. Texas, and Alberta, 4) regional low-angle unconformities as in many areas of the Mid-Continent region, and 5) local structures, such as salt domes, asymmetric anticlines, faults, and folds. Regional synthesis includes the/construction and analysis of province-wide maps and sections using surface and subsurface information. These help in determining what strata in what areas in new regions are most promising for the production of petroleum. Although already well developed commercially, the North American continent still contains many poorly known strata which may contain a wealth of undiscovered oil and gas; some of these may be: 1) Pennsylvanian and Permian strata of eastern Colorado, 2) Pennsylvanian’ strata of northwestern Colorado, 3) Ordovician strata of central New York, 4) Mississippian and Pennsylvanian rocks of the St. Lawrence Gulf region, 5) Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks of the Atlantic and E. Gulf coastal plain, 6) rocks dating from Cambrian to Tertiary in the Arctic Archipelago (including cratonic, coastal plain, and geosynclinals strata), 7) cratonic strata especially those of Devonian age in northwestern Canada, and 8) Tertiary rocks of the Pacific coast and Alaska. Regions 6, 7, and 8 (listed above) in northwestern North America are of special interest because of their nearly virgin status, their vast extent and their geologic similarity to major provinces in the conterminous U.S. and Mexico which have produced very large quantities of oil and gas. One hundred billion barrels of oil and 400 trillion cu ft of gas have been produced in North America, primarily from the southern part. An equal volume of oil and gas may still lie undiscovered in northwestern North America.

(c) North Africa:
Petroleum Geology Of North Africa:
American association of petroleum geologists (aapg oil and gas industry covering the middle east, north Africa to be “the source for out-of-print books in geology and. Ut wwwvl petroleum engineering publications with extensive knowledge of the international petroleum in 1985 from Texas tech university and a masters in geology in the u slower 48, china, Canada, west Africa and north. Message from the chairman of gaither petroleum Atlantic margin of northwest Africa and the northeast margin of north petroleum geology. Napga project North Africa – Arabian plate index system arc view gis is a series of thematic petroleum geology layers. North African petroleum geological atlas petroleum geology of southern Libya, sample clip of part 2 geology Libya petroleum exploration north.

Ud sciences de la terre – ulg – links organizations will lead to a better understanding of the geology of North Africa the documentation of this knowledge will assist in training the next generation of petroleum. Petroleum geology of North Africa this item: geology and mineral resources of West Africa by j b wright petroleum geology of the North Sea by kw glennie. Geological summary news about geology and earth science from around the world Africa Alabama Alaska Antarctic archaeology arctic Arizona the American petroleum institute and price water house coopers.

(iii) What is population transition? With the help of a diagram, explain the different stages of petroleum growth.

ANSWER: The “Demographic Transition” is a model that describes population change over time. It is based on an interpretation begun in.1929 py the American demographer Warren Thompson, of the observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death .rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years or so.

THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL

THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL

By “model” we mean that it is an idealized, composite picture of population change in these countries. The model is a generalization that applies to these countries as a group and may not accurately describe ~II individual cases. Whether or not it applies to less developed societies today remains to be seen.

STAGE ONE is associated with pre Modern times, and is characterized by a balance between birth rates and death rates. This sltuation was true of all human populations up until the late 18th.C. When the balance was broken in Western Europe.

STAGE TWO sees a rise in population caused by a decline in the death rate while the birth rate remains high, or perhaps even rises slightly. The decline in the death rate in Europe began in the late 18th.C. In northwestern Europe and spread over the next 100 years to the south end east. Data from Sweden clearly show this stage (and two other stages following it):

STAGE THREE moves the population towards stability through a decline in the birth rate. This shift belies Malthus’s belief that changes in the death rates were the primary cause of population change.
In general the decline in birth rates in developed countries began towards the end of the 19th.C. In northern Europe and followed the decline in death rates by several decades.

STAGE FOUR is characterized by stability. In this stage the population age structure has become older:

(iv) Write a note on the types of agriculture, and point out their major areas and crops.

ANSWER: Agriculture is one of the most widespread activities in the world, but its character is not uniform throughout. There are a number of ways to classify agriculture and some of the major criteria which can be adopted include the scale of farming, crop and livestock combinations, intensity of farming, means and ways of disposal of the farm produce and the level of farm mechanization etc. A number of scholars have attempted to identify various types of agriculture. The following are the major types of agriculture in the world.

(i) Nomadic Herding:
This type is based upon the rearing of animals on natural pastures. This practice is followed by the people of the semi arid and arid regions. They keep moving with their animals in search of natural pastures and lead a nomadic life. This type of the animals reared differ from one region to the other. Northern Africa, parts of Arabia and parts of northern Eurasia

(ii) Livestock Ranching:
Under this system of farming also the major emphasis is laid on rearing of animals but the farmers live a settled life. This type of farming has developed on a commercial basis in those areas of the world where large areas are available for animal grazing, such as the low rainfall areas of North America, South America and Australia. Animals are reared mainly for meat and wool and they are kept on large scale farms called the ranches.

(iii) Shifting Cultivation:
This is the type of farming adopted generally in the Rainy tropics. Under this system the land for cultivation is obtained by cleared off the forests with the help of slashing and During technique and it is cultivated for a few years till the fertility declines or the land is overtaken by the weeds etc. This is the subsistence type of activity adopted by’the people living in the tropical forest regions of Southeast Asia.

(iv) Rudimentary Sedentary Village:
This is also a subsistence type of activity and it differs from the foregoing type in terms of the fact that the same plot of land is cultivated continuously year after year. Fallowing of land is commonly adopted to maintain the soil fertility and it is also a farming type of the tropical regions. Besides the grain crops, some tree crops such rubber are also grown under this system.

(v) Intensive Subsistence Farming with Rice Dominant:

This type of-farming is practiced in the areas of tropical regions having a high density of population and receiving a large amount of precipitation. Rice is the dominant crop as it can employ and feed a large number of people per unit of area. Southeast Asian reqion is the major area of this type of farming. Use of manual and animal power is dominant and effort is made to enhance the productivity per unit of area with the use of manures etc.

(vi) Intensive Subsistence Farming Without Rice Dominant:

This is a slightly dry climatic variant of the foregoing type and as the amount of rainfall is not very high these regions grow grain crops other than rice, such as wheat and millets. Besides the comparatively less wet areas of Asia, northern Africa and the parts of Middle East this type of farming is commonly practiced in parts of southern Africa and Central America also.

(vii) Commercial Plantations:
Though practiced over a rather small area, this type of farming is quite important in terms of its commercial value. The major products of this type of farming are the tropical crops such as tea, coffee, rubber and oil palm etc. This type of farming has developed in parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America where the influence of the Europeans has been important during the colonial period.

(viii) Mediterranean Agriculture:
The typical rugged relief of the Mediterranean region has resulted in typical livestock and crop combinations in this region. Wheat and vineyards and citrus fruits are the major crops and the small animals the major livestock reared in the region. Horticulture is a major activity of this region and most of the crops other than these plantations are grown in winter with the help of winter rains.

(ix) Commercial Grain Farming:
This type of farming is a response to farm mechanization and it is the major type of activity in the areas of low rainfall and low density of population where extensive farming is practiced. Crops are prone to the vagaries of weather and droughts and mono culture of wheat is the general practice. Prairies, steppes and the temperate grasslands of South America and Australia are the main areas of this type of farming.

(x) Livestock and Grain Farming:
This type resembles the foregoing type in terms of the crops and type of. livestock but differs. In that practically nothing is sold off the farm. This type of farming has been common in areas of middle latitudes with lower fertility of soils or the areas of rough terrain and has declined significantly after the collectivization of farming in Russia which has been one of the major regions where this has been practiced.

(xi) Dairy Farming:
This type also had its origin in Europe from where it spread to other areas. Close proximity to the market and a temperate climate are the two favorable factors which have been responsible for the development of this type of farming. Countries like Denmark and Sweden have witnessed the maximum development of this type of farming.

(xii) Specialized Horticulture:
This type of farming has also developed to take advantage of a large demand for the products of horticulture and the areas of large scale urbanization and high density of population in Europe have been favorable for its development. This type of farming has best developed in the vineyard cultivation areas of France, northern Hungary and the Swiss Lakes regions.

5. Answer any One part question.

(i) Name eight main Highways Motorways of Pakistan. Write characteristics of Motorways.

ANSWER:
List of National Highways:
1. Karachi – Torkham,
2. Karachi – Gwadar (Makran Coastal Highway)
3. Mansehra – Chilas
4. Karachi – Chaman Bela,
5. Hasan Abdal – Khunjerab Pass
6. Nowshera – Chitral
7. Kuchlack – Dera Ismail Khan
8. Karachi – Peshawar

List of Motorways:
1. Peshawar – Islamabad
2. Islamabad – Lahore
3. Dera Ghazi Khan – Ratodero
4. Faisalabad – Multan’
5. Dadu – Hub
6. Pindi Bhattian (M-2) – Faisalabad
7. Ratodero – Gwadar
8. Hyderabad – Karachi

A motorway is a road specially designed and built for motor vehicle traffic, which does not directly provide access to the properties bordering on it. Other characteristics of motorways include:
• two separated carriageways for the opposing directions of traffic, except at special points or, temporarily, due to carriageway repairs etc.;
• carriageways that are not crossed at the level of the carriageway by any other road, railway or tramway track, or footpath; and
• the use of special sign posting to indicate the road as a motorway and to exclude specific categories of road vehicles and! or road users.

In determining the extent of a motorway its entry and exit lanes are included irrespective of the location of the motorway signposts. Urban motorways are also included in this term.

(ii) List the types of forest found “in Pakistan and explain their environmental and economic importance for the country.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 5{ii) (a) of 2013 Reg.

Posted on January 6, 2016 in 2nd Year 2012 Karachi Board Past Papers

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