GEOGRAPHY Past Paper 2nd year 2013 (Private) Karachi Board


1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:

(i) The large part of the world population inhabits in:.
* Indonesia and Brazil
* USA and Canada
* Europe
India and China

(ii) This Dam is built on River lndus:
* Mangla
* Warsak
* Rawal

(iii) The types of basic economic activities are:
* 2
* 3
* 4
* 5

(iv) The farming in which farmers grow only enough food to survive is cal/ed:
* Cultivation
* mechanized farming
* subsistence farming
* none of these

(v) Secondary activity includes:
* services
* production
R. material
* none of these

(vi) Thermal power is produced by:
* atom
* water
* wind

(vii) Commercial Geography is a branch of:
* Human Geography
* Physical Geography
* Economic Geography
* Cultural Geography

(viii) The world’s largest mountain range is:
* Alps
* Karakaram
* Andes

(ix) The longest river of Europe is:
* Danube
* Volga
* Rhine

(x) The biggest tea producing country in the world is:
* India
* Kenya
* Srilanka
* China

(xi) The major imports of U.K. are:
* Food stuffs and raw material
* Machine & rubber
* Wine and biscuits
Iron and coal

(xii) Alpine forests are found in this region:
* Peshawar, Kohat
Pindi, Islamabad, Muree
* Abbotabad, Manashera
* Chitral, Oer, Kohistan

(xiii) This region of China is called the rice howl:
* Hwang ho
Yantze Kiang
* Yunnan
* Sinkiang

(xiv) Colombo is the capital of:
* Japan
* Srilanka
* Thailand
* China

(xv) The manor export of New Zealand is:
* Wool
* oil
* Motor Car
* Cigarette


2. Answer any Five part questions.

(i) Differentiate between economic & commercial activities.

Economic activities:
Activities, which are performed with the objective to earn money, are known as economic activities. For example, a farmer grows up crops to sell them, A factory or office employee works and gets wages and salary, a businessman earn profit through buying and selling of goods.

Commercial activities:
Commercial activities – include all those business activities which are undertaken for sale or exchange of goods and services and facilitate their availability for consumption and use. Thus, it includes trading activities and other service activities like transport, banking, insurance, warehousing etc. These service activities are known as auxiliaries to trade or aids to trade. They facilitate the business by carrying goods from the place of production to the place of consumption, providing finance, undertaking risk, systematic storing of goods etc.

(ii) What do you mean by OPEC. Write the name of its members.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 4(iv) of 2014 Private

(iii) Write the density of population in different areas of the world.

ANSWER: Population density is a measurement of the number of people in an area. It is an average number.

Population density [s calculated by dividing the number of people by area. Population density is usually shown as the number of people per square kilometer. The map below is a choropleth (shading) map and illustrates population density. The darker the color the greater the population density.

Some areas have a high population density while others have _a low population density. Areas of high population density tend to be located between 20° and 600 N. This area contains a large land area and a relatively temperate climate.

(iv) What is the importance of iron ore?

ANSWER: Iron is perhaps the most useful metal for us. It is required to make steel, without which the present day civilization would, not survive. It is used in Industry, Construction, all mode of transportation, Utensils and household articles, electronic gadgets, the list is practically endless. And even our food must be rich in iron, because the iron compound hemoglobin is an essential ingredient of human blood. It is used to carry oxygen to our body cells to keep them alive. Thank god, it is easy to recycle it and we also have sufficient stock.

(v) Name the cotton producing area.

ANSWER: List of Top 10 Cotton Producing Countries in the World. People’s Republic of China. India, United States, Pakistan, Brazil, Uzbekistan, Australia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Greece.

(vi) Name the coal regions in Asia.

ANSWER: China is currently the world’s largest coal miner, and it is also the largest consumer of coal in the world India has some of the largest reserves of coal in the world (approx. 267 billion tones. The energy derived from coal in India is about twice that of energy derived from oil, whereas worldwide, energy derived from coal is about 30% less than energy derived from oil.

Pakistan discovered of a vast deposit in Sindh Province -In the 1990s, has led to a JORC resource, in the region of 175 Billion tones, work is ongoing with production expected to commence in 2013, with several foreign companies competing to mine various blocks of the resource.

(vii) Describe the influence of land forms and climate on economic activities.

ANSWER: There is a close linkage between physical environment and commercial and economic activities because the natural and mineral resources all over the world are not same. Land forms of a country produces great effects on its economic activities. If a” country is situated at centre geographically with respect to its nearing countries then it cannot establish trade relations with other countries of the world. The countries which are surrounded by seas and oceans, trade becomes flourished there like Japan and Great Britain and mostly trade is done by using water ways. Karachi port is the best example in this respect. The countries y.’here the construction of roads and railways is difficult are not able to establish organized industries. Mineral resources, soil and forests are also helpful in the development of economic activities. The countries where soil is fertile, agricultural activities grow there while the countries which are rich in mineral resources are known as Industrial Countries. The countries which have thick forests establish the trade of raw materials. The climate also produces its effects on economic activities. The cultivation of rice is not possible on extreme cold regions of the world. Similarly cotton textile industry cannot be established in extreme hot countries.

(viii) Why the main fisheries of the world are located in the cool moderate temperature regions. Discuss.

ANSWER: The fish temperature increased, on the average, less than 1 degrees C during passage through the production room, notwithstanding the thermal differences among the factories. These findings should be used in attempts to reduce the cold exposure of the workers; but also improved control should be recommended for both environmental and water temperatures in the factories.

3. Answer any Four part questions.

(i) Write the different modes of irrigation in Pakistan.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 5(ii) of 2014 Private

(ii) Give reasons of agricultural backwardness in Pakistan.

ANSWER: Though the agricultural sector is facing problems in Pakistan yet the major chunk of money comes from this sector. Following are the major causes of agricultural problems in Pakistan which disturb the agricultural growth or development in Pakistan.

Firstly, No mechanism has been adopted to eradicate the soil erosion.

Secondly, water wastage is very high in our country. Thirdly, owing old methods of cultivation and harvesting, Pakistan has low yield per acre that means the average crop in Pakistan is just 1/4th of that of advance states. Fourthly, the small farmers are increasing in our country as the lands are dividing generation by generation.

Fifthly Water logging & salinity is increasing day by day Sixthly, No emphasize has been laid on the importance of solving the problems of farmers. Most of the farmers are illiterate, poor and ignorant.

Lastly, The only mean of communication in rural areas is T.V or radio so it is urgently needed on the part of these mass communication resources to air the programs related to the new agricultural techniques and allied sciences.

(iii) What are importance of railway in Pak?

ANSWER: Railways and roadways are the two means of transport over the land. Roads can be built in the hilly areas also whereas railway lines cannot be laid easily. The railways have advantage over’ the roadways that they can carry a large number of passengers & large & heavy load to long distances. Also journey by train is more comfortable than by bus.

Urban cities came up with importance of railways and railways stations in particular. Moreover, unlike other industries which become modern over a period of time, railways changed technology at a much faster scale. It bought distant towns closer to mainstream cities and helped big time in commerce.

(iv) Give reason for uneven distribution of population in Pak.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 3 (iii) of 2015.

(v) Why Karachi. records lower temperature in Summer and higher in winter in relation to Lahore. Give reasons.

ANSWER: The climate of Karachi features an arid climate, albeit a moderate version of this climate. Karachi is located on the coast and as a result has a relatively mild climate. Karachi has two main seasons; Summer & Winter, while spring and autumn are very short. Summer season persists for-longest period during the year. Karachi also receives the monsoon rains from July to September. The city enjoys a tropical climate encompassing mild winters and warm summers. The humidity levels usually remain high from March to November, while very low in winter as the wind direction in winter is North Easterly.

Lahore features a five season semi-arid climate, Composite monsoon climate with five seasons Foggy Winters (15 Nov – 15 Feb) with few western disturbances causing rains, Pleasant Spring (16 Feb – 15 April), Summer (15 April – June) with Dust rain storms and Heat wave periods, Rainy Moon Soon (July – 16 September) and Dry but Pleasant Autumn (16 September-14 November).

The hottest month is June, where average highs routinely exceed 40°C (104.0 °F).Wettest month is July, with heavy rainfalls and evening thunderstorms with the possibility of cloudburst. Coolest Month is January with dense fog.

(vi) What are the causes of the rapid growth of e-banking in Pakistan?

ANSWER: The main benefit from the customer’s point of view is major time saving by the computerized of banking services as well as online processing and an easy maintenance tools for managing customer’s money. Some other key benefits of e-banking for customers are as follows
1. Decreased costs in operating and using the banking e-services.
2. Increased relief and time saving operation can be made 24 hours a day, without consulting with the bank.
3. Rapid & enhanced access to information. Organizations or customers will have much easy access to get information as, they can check on several accounts on click of a button.
4. Improved cash management. E-banking services speed up cash cycle and enhance the efficiency of business operations as large types of cash management methods are available by e banking.
5. Decrease costs in terms using the different e-banking products and services,

(vii) Describe distribution of coal fields in Pak.

ANSWER: The Thar coalfield is located in Thar Desert, Tharparkar District of Sindh province in Pakistan. The deposits – 6th largest coal reserves in the world were discovered in 1991 by Geological (GSP) and the United State Agency for International Development.

Pakistan has emerged as one of the leading countries – seventh in the list of top 20 countries of the world after the discovery of huge lignite coal resources in Sindh. The economic coal deposits of Pakistan are restricted to Paleocene and Eocene rock sequences. It is one of the world’s . largest lignite deposits discovered by GSP in 90’s, spread over more than 9,000 km2. Comprise around 175 billion tones Sufficient to meet the country’s fuel requirements for centuries.


4. Answer any Two part questions.

(i) Give an account of iron and steel industry of the world.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 4 (i) of 2015.

(ii) What are the types of commercial activities? Explain with examples.

Commercial Activities:

The world may be divided into different regions on the basis of climate, geographic conditions and their production. Because of different environment and weather there is a visible difference among their population characteristics specially in their education, productivity and efficiency etc. Therefore on the basis of theory of comparative cost” every company specialize in its comparatively advance fields and then exports these products to the comparatively less specialize country. On the other hand they imports comparatively less specialize products from them. These transactions of goods from one country to another are known as commercial activities”.
Commercial activities may be classified as under:

Trader: Who acts as middle man between producer and the consumers such as merchants, shopkeepers, brokers, financers and bankers.
Transporters: Those who arrange the movement of goods e.g Truck drivers, Pilots, merchant seamen, & wireless operator, telephone etc

(iii) Name the factors for the localization of cotton textile industry. Where are these industries located?

ANSWER: Please see Q. 4 (iii) of 2015.

(iv) Write short note on any two of the following:
(a) International trade of fish.

ANSWER: International trade of fish is growing strongly, reflecting rising consumption in all world regions with global consumption now at an all-time high of 17,4 kg/capita. In 2006, around 37% of all fish caught or farmed was traded internationally, with a global export value of US$86 billion.

Large retail stores are becoming major players. Through innovations in logistics and supply management they’ve been able to reduce costs, and competition at the retail level has translated that into lower prices. Retail chain expansion has increased the availability of products to consumers, stimulating consumption.

At the same time, bigger retailers mean fewer potential buyers. The resulting increase in buyer power is an issue for smaller producers in developing countries. FAD has a number of activities supporting this sector in entering into international marketing channels.

Big retailers are shaping the industry in other ways – for example setting tough standards related to quality and the environmental impacts of the fish they buy, which has placed new demands on producers and exporters. There’s actually a bit of confusion ~wirling around such standards – there are quite a few, some from industry, others from third-party certifying agencies, others from governments – and interest is growing in the idea of somehow reconciling them and coming up with one manageable and fair international standard.

(b) Shifting of cultivation
ANSWER: Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot. The period of cultivation is usually terminated when the soil shows signs of exhaustion or, more commonly,· when the field is overrun by weeds. The length of time that a field is cultivated is usually shorter than the period over which the land is allowed to regenerate by lying fallow.

Of these cultivators, many use a practice of slash-and burn as one element of their farming cycle. Others employ land clearing without any burning, and some cultivators are purely migratory and do not use any cyclical method on a given plot. Sometimes no slashing at all is needed where regrowth is purely of grasses, an outcome not uncommon when soils are near exhaustion and need to lie fallow. One land-clearing system of shifting agriculture is the slash-and-burn method, which leaves only stumps and large trees in the field after the standing vegetation has been cut down and burned, its ashes enriching the soil. Cultivation of the earth after clearing is usually accomplished by hoe or digging stick and not by plough.

(c) Distribution of iron ore in world.

ANSWER: Distribution: According to the investment of world minerals, the main iron ores are distributed in the following countries: Brazil, Australia, Russia, Ukraine, China, India, Venezuela, Canada, Sweden, USA, Iran, Mauritania, South Africa, Mexico, etc.

Production: Word Mine Production of lron Ore is in the countries above almost, -when the mine production estimate for China is based on crude ore, rather than usable ore. Iron Ore in the countries (Updating) Australia, A.sia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe:

Substitutes: the only source of primary iron is iron ore, used directly, as lump ore, or converted to briquettes, concentrates, pellets, or sinter. At some blast furnace operations, ferrous scrap may constitute as much as 7% of the blast. furnace feedstock. Scrap is extensively used in steel making in electric arc furnaces and in iron and steel foundries, but scrap availability can be an issue in any given year. In general, large price increases for lump and fine iron ores and iron ore pellets through mid- 2009 were commensurate with price increases in the alternative=scrap. The ratio of scrap to iron ore import prices has greatly increased since the end of 2009, causing the relative attractiveness of scrap compared to iron ore to decrease to levels of 2008. The ratio of scrap to iron ore price still remains markedly below levels seen between 2003 & 2007.

5. Answer any One part questions.

(i) Define the physical features of Pakistan.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 5(i) of 2014 Private

(ii) List the types of Forest found in Pak. & explain an economic importance for country.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 5(ii)(a) of 2013 Reg.

Posted on January 6, 2016 in 2nd Year 2013 Karachi Board Past Papers

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