SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) He is the founder of Genetics:
* Gregor John Mendol
* Charles Darwin
* William Harvey
(ii) In the heart of frog the number of chamber is:
(iii) Agaricus is commonly known as:
* Water mold
(iv) This vitamin is essential for vision:
* Vitamin A
* Vitamin 8
* Vitamin C
* Vitamin D
(v) Kitab-ul-Manazir is written by:
* Bu Ali Sina
* AI Razi
(vi) This bird cannot fly:
(vii) Cow is:
(viii) The group of funaria is:
* Musci or Mosses
* Horn worts
* Pteris (fern)
(ix) It has no teeth in the mouth.
(x) These are the respiratory organs of fishes:
(xi) A leafless plant cuscuta is a/an:
* Total parasite
* Partial parasite
(xii) It is caused by a plasmodium:
(xiii) Amoeba belongs to the phylum.
(xiv) It is the tissue that conducts water and salts in plants:
(xv) It is not a cold-blooded animal:
SECTION “B” (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
NOTE: Answer any 7 questions from this section. Each questions carries 3 marks.
2. Write the names of any three Muslim scientists and give one contribution of each of them in the field of Biology.
(i) Bu Ali Sina: He was the greatest Muslim scientist and one of the founders of medicine. He wrote many books on human anatomy and many other topics.
(ii) Ibn-al-Nafees: He described blood circulation during 13th century A.D.
(iii) Ali Bin Isa: He was a well known Eye-Specialist and worked on the structure function and diseases of Eye.
3. Write three functions of Blood
The blood during its circulation performs the following functions:
(i) It carries oxygen from the respiratory organs to all parts of the body and brings back carbon dioxide to lungs.
(ii) It carries digested food from the alimentary canal to the places where it is required.
(iii) It brings the waste products from various parts of the body to the organs of exertion.
4. Draw a neat and labeled diagram of the structure of a human Tooth.
5. Write the translation of any One Quranic verse about the usefulness of plants and animals to human beings.
“And Lo! In the ‘cattle there is a lesson for you, We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies, from betwixt the refuse and the blood, pure milk palatable to drinkers.”
OR Define any Two of the following:
(i) Kidney stone (ii) Enzymes (iii) Gene
(i) Kidney stone: A kidney stone is a solid mass which forms from the crystals of calcium, Magnesium, Uric acid which separate out from urine & get deposited on kidney walls If break loose they pass out with urine, without pain. But when they grow in size, may damage the kidney & urinary tract.
(ii) Enzymes: Enzymes are bio catalysts which help in chemical reactions in cell. Enzymes performing the process of digestion are called hydrolytic enzymes. They are secreted by digestive glands.
(iii) Gene: A small segment of DNA in a chromosome where hereditary information is stored is called a Gene. It is the basic unit of biological information. Each gene has a specific function e.g. a gene determines the height of a pea plant, colour of flowers. etc.
6.Describe the theory of Biogenesis & Abiogenesis in brief.
Biogenesis: According to the concept living things can develop only from other living beings only.
An Italian Scientist Redi Experimentally proved this concept.
Abiogenesis: It is the belief that living beings can spontaneously develop from the non-living things.
Needham’s Experiment: This experiment supported Abiogenesis. An English Scientist Needham in 1748 performed on experiment in which he boiled meat in water. He poured this gravy’ in bottles and closed their mouth with corks and sealed them.
8. Explain any Two of the following:
(i) Appendicitis (ii) Tuberculosis
(iii) Cataract (iv) Paralysis
(i) Appendicitis: It is the inflammation (burning, painful sensation) of the appendix associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. It could be due to obstruction of the appendix either by faces or worms which cause localized swelling pain in right side of lower abdomen. In such a case, physician must be consulted immediately for diagnosis and treatment. If the condition remained ignored for some time, the appendix may burst in their abdominal cavity that could be extremely fatal for the patient.
It is another disease of the lungs caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) which destroy the lung tissues.It can be diagnosed by chest X-ray and sputum test. At one
time T.B. was one of the most common causes of death; but modern medicine has now nearly cured it.
In this disorder transparency of the lens of the eye is lost and it becomes hard and opaque. It commonly occurs in old age. The main symptom is blurring of vision. Th!s lens is removed surgically and a new man made lens is implanted.
It is complete or partial loss of voluntary movements resulting in the inability to contract one or more muscles. Common cause of paralysis is a stroke in which damage to a part of the brain is caused by bleeding or blood clotting in a blood vessel that supplies that area of the brain.
9. Write three characteristic of the phylum Arthropoda.
Characteristics of the phylum Arthropoda:
(i) They have jointed legs and their body is divided into head, thorax and abdomen.
(ii) Their development takes place from egg to adult through stages. This is called Metamorphosis.
(iii) It is the largest phylum and includes all kinds of insects.
10. Define any Two of the following:
(i) Hibernation or Winter sleep (Ii) Metamorphosis
(iii) Cold-blooded and Warm-blooded animals
(iv) Book Lungs.
(i) Hibernation or Winter sleep:
Hibernation is the winter sleep in frog. During winter season they bury them selves in the wet mud and remain inside throughout the winter season.
Many insects such as mosquitoes hatch out of their eggs in a premature form and pass through different stages of development before they reach the adult stage. This phenomenon is called metamorphosis.
Metamorphosis is of two types:
(i) Complete metamorphosis
(ii) Incomplete metamorphosis
(iii) Cold-blooded and Warm-blooded animals:
WARM BLOODED ANIMALS:
Worm blooded animals are those animals who maintain their body temperature constant. Example: Class Aves.
COLD BLOODED ANIMALS:
Cold blooded animals are those whose body temperature changes with that of the surroundings. Example: Class Pisces.
(iv) Book Lungs:
Book lungs are pulmonary sacs in terrestrial arthropods, each lung has compressed sac like cavity with many membranous folds.
OR Write the importance of any Two of the following:
(i) Genetic Engineering (ii) Poultry
(i) Genetic Engineering:
. Genetic engineering is a technology of gene I DNA manipulation in the laboratory for human welfare.
APPLICATION OF GENETIC ENGINEERING:
Genetic engineering is so useful that several billion dollar industry is based on it Pharmaceutical companies manufacture hormones, enzymes & vaccines through it. These products cannot be manufactured by any other means. Human insulin for diabetics, Human Growth Hormone (HGH) for dwarf children, vaccines for hepatitis B & AIDS patients, & Human interferon for cancer are successfully made from bacteria.
(ii) Poultry: Poultry means chicken and eggs. Poultry farming has great importance due to pressing needs of a good substitute of beef and mutton. As, use of eggs and the meat of hens is not harmful in any respect its need is growing Biological techniques help very much in poultry production.
(iv) Mitosis: In this type of cell division a parent cell divides into two daughter cells in a way that the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells remains the same as in the parent cell.
Mitosis is a continuous process, its karyokinesis can be divided for convenience into four phases which are:
SIGNIFICANCE OF MITOSIS:
Mitosis plays an important role in the life of an organism. It is responsible for development and growth of organisms by increasing exact copies of cells. With few exception all kinds of asexual reproduction and vegetative propagation take place by mitosis. The production of new somatic cells, such as blood cells depends on mitosis. The healing of wounds, repair of wear and tear within organism is also dependent upon the mitotic division.
11. Write 3 functions of Endoskeleton in man.
Functions of Endoskeleton in man:
(i) It provides support to the muscles of the body thus helping in movement.
(ii) It provides protection to vital organs of body e.g. Rebcage protects heart and lungs.
(iii) It provides structural frame work of the body and maintains its shape.
NOTE:Answer 7 questions from this section.
12. Describe any three types of bacteria according to their shape.
There are different shapes of bacteria.
(i) Cocci: (Singular-Coccus = Gr. Kokkos = Berry, rounded). They are spherical and according to cell arrangement they are: Solitary (single) (Monococcus), in pair (Diplococci), in chain (Streptococci), in cluster (Staphylococci) etc. They are non_flagellated.
(ii) Bacilli: (Singular-Bacillus = L, Bakulus = A rod). They are rod shaped. They may be found in pairs (Diplobacillus) or in chains (Streptobacillus) etc. They may be flagellated.
(iii) Spirilla: (Singular-Spirillum = Gr. Sperira = A coil. They are spiral or cork screw shaped (spirillum).
(i) Hyphae: In fungi a fine tubular filament spreads out from its body and forms a loose network. These are called Hyphae. Their tips secrete enzymes to digest and penetrate the food supply.
(ii) TAXONOMY: (Gr: Taxis – arrangement or grouping; Noms- laws related to naming): It deals with the description, identification, classification and scientific naming of living organisms, according to their similarities and dissimilarities.
(iii) Aerobic bacteria: These are the bacteria which require oxygen for their respiration.
(iv) Transpiration: Transpiration is the process by which plant give out extra water from the stomata of their leaves, into the atmosphere.
14. What is Pollination? Describe 2 of its type
Pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a flower is called Pollination. It is of two types.
(i) Self Pollination: Pollen grains are transferred from anther to stigma of same flower.
(ii) Cross Pollination: Pollen grains are transferred from anther to stigma of another flower of same species.
15. Write any three advantages and disadvantages of vegetative propagation.
(i) Only one parent is required and off spring are identical.
(ii) Plants cover large area of ground rapidly.
(iii) Only good and describable parental characters develop in off spring.
(i) Evolution does not occur due to lock of recombination of genes.
(ii) Severs competition occurs die to over crowding of same type of plants.
(iii) Due to unnatural relation, resistance towards diseases is reduced.
16. Define Germination and write the names of any two of its types.
Germination: It the process during which a dormant embryo wakes up and begins to grow to form seedling.
There are two main types:
(i) Hypogeal Germination:
The cotyledons remain under the soil.
(ii) Epigeal Germination:
The cotyledons come above the soil.
(i) Many vascular plants specially angiosperms are source of food e.g. wheat, rice, maize, pulses etc.
(ii) Many vegetables come from vascular plants e.g. potato, cauliflower, radish, carrots, bean, lady finger, onion etc.
(iii) Many ingredients of our food also come from vascular plants e.g. mustard, sugar, coconut etc.
OR What is a Community? Write the names of the components of a Community.
Community: Many different types of organisms may live together in the same habitat or area. Together they make up a community. e.g. Fresh water pond, water plant, frogs, fishes, insects live together.
Components of a Community: They are
18. Write three differences Aerobic Respiration and Anaerobic Respiration.
OR Describe Phototroplam and Geotropism.
Phototropism: It is the movement of a plant in response to the stimulus of light. Stems grow directly towards light and positively phototropic.Leaves also show positive phototropism. Roots grow away from light.
Geotropism: Geotropism is the movement of plant organs in response to the stimulus of gravity or earth. The roots of plants grow towards soil and are positively geotropic.
19. Describe any Two of the following:
(i) Stomata (ii) Plastids (iii) Meristematic tissue.
These are very small pores on the under surface of leaves. Each stoma is guarded by’ two guard cells which regulate its opening and closing. CO² enter the leaf for photosynthesis and O² for respiration at night.
Plastids are found in the cells of all the higher plants. Theses are the organelles which contain different types of pigments. Plastids are of three types on the basis of their pigment or colour.
Chloroplast have green pigment i.e. chlorophyll found in leaves and other green parts of a plant. They manufacture carbohydrates by the process of photosynthesis.
Chromoplast have coloured pigments other green found in fruit, flower, petals and other coloured parts of plants.
(iii) Meristematic tissues: .
These tissues have ability to divide, so that the number of cells increases and the organism can grow.
Meristematic tissue is present in root tips, shoot apex of plants. They help to increase the length of the root and shoot.
SECTION ‘C’ (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
21. Describe the structure of Neuron. Write the names.and the working of any two types of neuron according to their funntions.
Nervous system consists of special cells called neurons. They have the ability to generate and conduct a mild electric current whose transmission from one neuron to another is called nerve impulse. Each neuron consists of a cell body or soma, with cell dendrites and axon. Soma contains cytoplasm, its organelles and Axon nucleus. Dendrites are much branched thread like projections for receiving impulses. On the contrary, is usually un-branched, single, elongated; fiber specialized for conducting impulses to other
neurons. At its terminal end, many branches are given out to form end plate.
According to the function, neurons are of the 3 types.
(i) Sensory neurons:
They transmit impulses from receptors to the nervous system.
(ii) Motor neurons:
They transmit instructions of the central nervous system to the effects organs.
22. What is the Portal System? Write two types of the Portal System in frog.
The set of veins, which collect blood from one organ and discharge it into another are called portal veins, and, the system consisting of the veins doing this, is called portal system.
Kinds of Portal System:
There are two kinds of portal system in frog.
(i) Hepatic portal system.
(ii) Renal portal system.
(i) Hepatic Portal System:
Blood from the digestive system is taken to liver by Hepatic portal vein. From liver it enters the post cavil. Blood from hind limbs is collected by abdominal vein & taken to liver.
(ii) Renal Portal System:
The alternate route of blood from the hind limbs is by the way of a renal portal vein. The blood is collected by capillaries in hind·limbs which join to form renal portal vein. It opens into kidneys. From kidneys the blood enters post cavil by renal veins.
23. Draw a neat and labeled diagram of the vertical section of the human Eye.
24. Define Autotrophic and Heterotrophic plants and describe Saprophytes and Insectivorous plants.
Autotrophic Plants: These are the plants which can manufacture their own food through photosynthesis. They have normal roots with root hairs. These root hairs absorb water from the soil.
These plants depend in one way or the other on other plants or other organisms. They do not have root hairs on their roots, and also cannot perform photosynthesis. Heterotrophic plants can be:
(iii) Insectivorous plants
These plants have no chlorophyll and derive their food from dead organic matter. Some flowering plants like monotropa and neottia are also saprophytic in nature. These plants are found in thick jungles where sunlight cannot reach the ground and the soil is rich in decomposing organic matter. As there are no root hairs in these plants they cannot draw their nourishment from the soil. The roots of these plants develop in association with a special type of fungus. A part of the hyphae of this fungus enters the
roots of these plants. These hyphae thus serve as ‘root hairs’ and help in the absorption of the food from the dead organic matter.
These plants are found in marshy areas of many countries. These marsh lands are deficieot in nitrogen compounds and nitrates. To make up for this deficiency of nitrogenous compounds in their bodies, such plants feed on insects. They attract insects with their peculiar shape, colour and nectar and then trap them inside their modified leaves. The preyis killed, digested by enzymes and finally absorbed. The insectivorous plants can make their food by photosynthesis because of chlorophyll in their leaves and can survive without eating insects. However the insect-fed plants are stronger and healthier. They’ bear more flowers, fruits and seeds.
Pitcher plant is a common insectivore. It is found along Eastern Himalayas. In this plant the lamina of leaves is modified into an elongated pitcher with a lid at the top. It is here that insects are trapped. The leaf base becomes flat and behaves like leaf lamina. It is green due to the presence of chlorophyll. The petiole is twisted and curved to keep pitcher in straight position.
OR Define Movement, Stimulus and Response in plants. Describe any two types of movements in plants due to the action of external stimuli.
Movement in Plants:
Plants, in response to different stimuli show reactions as a result of which, as a whole or its parts show some activity. These are called Movement in plants.
Stimulus is the factor which tries to affect a plant, for example light, chemicals, and change in temperature.
It is reaction, which the part of plant, performs as an answer to the stimulus.
The response towards the stimulus is called as positive response while away from the stimulus is called a negative response.
The movements in the plants which are caused by external stimuli are of three types:
(i) Tactic movements
(ii) Tropic movements
(iii) Nastic movements
(i) TACTIC MOVEMENTS:
These movements are locomotors in which the plant body as a whole moves from one place to another in response to external stimuli such as light, chemicals, temperature etc. depending on the nature of the stimuli the tactic movements may be:
(ii) NASTIC MOVEMENTS:
These are the movements of mainly dorsiventral organs like leaves and petals, induced by external stimuli such as contact, light and temperature etc. the direction of the movement is here determined by the structure of the plant it self and not by external stimulus. The response of the plant is always the same whatever is the direction from which the stimulus is acting.
25. Describe an experiment to prove that oxygen gas is evolved during Photosynthesis. Draw its labeled diagram also.
(1) Take a water plant like Hydria and put it in a beaker.
(2) Put a funnel inverted, over this plant. The stem of the funnel should be short.
(3) Fill a test tube with water and keep it inverted on the stem of the funnel. The level of water in the beaker should be above the upper end of the funnel.
(4) Keep this set-up in sunlight for a few hours.
Bubbles rise up slowly in the test tube and a gas is collected in the upper end of the test tube. On testing this gas with a lighted matchstick it is found to glow.
RESULT: The gas collected is oxygen hence oxygen is given out during photosynthesis.