SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) Amoeba moves with the help of:
(ii) Cigarette-smoke contains—————.
* All of them
(iii) D.N.A is formed in ———.
(iv) Who discovered cell, the basic unit of living organism:
* Robert Hook
* William Harvey
(v) Crocodile belongs to Class:
(vi) The study of microscopic organisms is called ———–.
(vii) The basic unit of classification is ———–.
(viii) ———- is an egg laying mammal.
* Duck billed platypus
(ix) The seed is a ———–.
* Ripened ovule
* Ripened ovary
(x) The intelligent guess of a scientist in the form of
statement is called:
(xi) The fourth whorl of a flower is ———–.
(xii) Which of the following is a gill breathing animal?
(xiii) Tuberculosis is caused by:
* None of them
(xiv) Scurvy is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin ———–.
(xv) Horse tails are the common name of ———–.
2. Define the following branches of Biology:
(a) Palentoiogy(b) Embryology(c) Genetics
It is the study of plants and animals which lived in remote past and are now found as fossils in rocks.
It is the study of developmental changes which occur from Zygote formation to an organism (adult).
It deals with the study of inheritance including transmission of hereditary character from parents to offspring.
3. Write down any three characteristics of Phylum Echinodermata.
(i) Echinodermates have rough spiny skin and found only in sea
(ii) They are pentamerous and have a unique water vascular system which pumps the external water through out their bodies.
(iii) They have tube feet which enable them to glide over rocks in water.
(iv) They do not have head, eyes or even brain.
Examples: Starfish, See cucumber.
4. Give any three differences between sexual and asexual reproduction
5. Define Portal system. Name two types of Portal system found in frog.
The set of veins, which collect blood from one organ and discharge it into another are called portal veins, and, the system consisting of the veins doing this, is called portal system.
Kinds of Portal System:
There are two kinds of portal system in frog.
(i) Hepatic portal system.
(ii) Renal portal system.
(i) Hepatic Portal System:
Blood from the digestive system is taken to liver by Hepatic portal vein. From liver it enters the post cavil. Blood from hind limbs is collected by abdominal vein & taken to liver.
(ii) Renal Portal System:
The alternate route of blood from the hind limbs is by the way of a renal portal vein. The blood is collected by capillaries in hind·limbs which join to form renal portal vein. It opens into kidneys. From kidneys the blood enters post cavil by renal veins.
6. Define cold blooded and warm blooded animals. Give one example of each.
WARM BLOODED ANIMALS:
Worm blooded animals are those animals who maintain their body temperature constant. Example: Class Aves.
COLD BLOODED ANIMALS:
Cold blooded animals are those whose body temperature changes with that of the surroundings. Example: Class Pisces.
This class of worm blooded animals includes all birds. They have feathers on their body fore limbs are modified into wings and have two legs with claws. They do not have teeth in their mouth their respiratory system is well developed.
This class of cold blooded animals includes all kinds of fishes. Their bodies are spindle shaped to help in. swimming. They have head trunk & a tail. Their bodies are mostly covered with scales. They have fins & breathing organs are gills.
OR Name the units of Classification.
UNITS OF CLASSIFICATION:
In biology the units of classification are, from basic unit to higher as under:
Species ——– Genera ———family,
Order ——– Class ——– Phylum
Many phyla make kingdom.
7. Write down the names of three subgroups of mammals with one example of each.
SUBGROUPS OF MAMMALS:
(i) Egg laying Mammals. e.g. Duck bill
(ii) Pouched Mammals: e.g. kangaroo
(iii) Placental Mammals: e.g. man, cat etc.
8. Name three Muslim biologists and write one contribution of each in the field of Biology.
(i) Bu Ali Sina: He was the greatest Muslim scientist and one of the founders of medicine. He wrote many books on human anatomy and many other topics.
(ii) Ibn-al-Nafees: He described blood circulation during 13th century A.D.
(iii) Ali Bin Isa: He was a well known Eye-Specialist and worked on the structure function and diseases of Eye.
9. Write three health problems related to nutrition in man.
HEALTH PROBLEMSOF NUTRITION:
(i) UNDER NUTRITION:
Problem of poor countries where there is insufficient food for people. Physical & mental growth is severely affected.
(ii) MAT NUTRITION:
Mat nutrition refers to a diet missing in one or more basic nutrients. Protean and Carbohydrates deficiency is common in Asia and results in retardation of growth.
Over nutrition means taking excess nutrients. Obesity is the result of it.
OR Draw a neat and labelled diagram of Excretory & Reproductive System of Male frog.
10. Define any Two of the following:
(a) Mitosis (b) Digestion (c) Appendicitis (d) Species
(a) Mitosis: Mitosis is the cell division by which the number of chromosomes in the daughter cell is same, as in parent cell.
(b) Digestion: Digestion is the process of breaking down large molecules of food into smaller diffusible molecules so that they can be absorbed by cell.
(c) Appendicitis: It is the inflammation (burning, painful sensation) of the appendix associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. It could be due to obstruction of the appendix either by faces or worms which cause localized swelling pain in right side of lower abdomen. In such a case, physician must be consulted immediately for diagnosis and treatment. If the condition remained ignored for some time, the appendix may burst in their abdominal cavity that could be extremely fatal for the patient.
(d) Species: Species is the basic unit of biological Classification. It is a group of organisms which have common physical features and capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.
11. Write three differences between Arteries and Veins.
OR Write three functions of human skeleton.
FUNCTION OF SKELETON IN MAN:
(i) It provides shape and support to the body.
(ii) It gives protection to vital organs such as lungs, heart· and brain.
(iii) It helps in locomotion.
NOTE: Answer 7 questions from this section.
12. Draw a neat and labeled diagram of Chamydomonas.
13. Define photosynthesis. Write its chemical equation.
The process by which plants make their food is called photosynthesis. In this process a plant can build sugar by taking carbon. dioxide from air and water from – the soil. Enzymes needed for this purpose are present in the cells and energy is trapped by chlorophyll from sunlight.
14. Give. any three differences between Angiosperm & Gymnosperm Plants.
Plastids are organelles in the cells of plants, which contain different pigments. They are:
They have green pigment chlorophyll found in leaves and other green parts of a plant. They help in photosynthesis.
They have other different coloured pigments, and are found in flowers, fruits and other coloured parts of plant.
leucoplasts are colourless pigments found in cells of underground parts of a plant. They store food as starch.
SIMPLE PLANT TISSUE:
Simple plant tissue is a tissue made up of one type of cells forming a uniform mass.
COMPLEX PLANT TISSUE:
Complex plant tissue is made up of more than one type of cells working together as a unit.
21. Define Hypogeal germination and Epigeal germination.
Germination: It the process during which a dormant embryo wakes up and begins to grow to form seedling.
There are two main types:
(i) Hypogeal Germination:
The cotyledons remain under the soil.
(ii) Epigeal Germination:
The cotyledons come above the soil.
OR Draw a neat and labeled diagram of L.S. of human kidney.
23. Describe Lamarck’s Theory of Evolution with two examples.
LAMARCKISM OR LAMARCK’S THEORY OF EVOLUTION:
J.B. Lamarck (1744 – 1829), a French biologist, proposed that organisms modify their bodies through use or disuse of organs and these modifications can be inherited by the portents to their offspring’s. According to him the continuous use of any organ would develop that organ while disuse would result in gradual weakening and its ultimate reduction and disappearance in the subsequent generations. Such characters were termed as acquired characters. This ideas about the evolution is known as Lamarck’s theory of evolution or Lamarckism.
OR Write different types of teeth in man and describe their functions.
The flat chisel – shaped teeth present in front of oral cavity are incisors. They are eight in number; four in upper while four in the lower jaws. They are used in cutting.
Beside incisors lie canines on each side in both jaws, They are four in number and are pointed. They are used for tearing and pulling flesh. That’s why they are very long and prominent in carnivores such as lion. Herbivore animals usually do not have canines.
In both jaws each canine is followed by two premolars. They are 8 in number and each with two distinct edges. They are involved in grinding the food.
Three molars follow premolars of each side of both jaws. They are 12 in number. They also grind food. The last molar is called wisdom tooth. The arrangement of teeth can be represented by the following formula called dental formula, 1 2/2, C Ill, Pm 2/2, M 3/3. It represents each type of tooth in half of the upper jaw and half of the lower jaw.
24. Describe Fauna of Pakistan.
Fauna means the animal life and different groups of animals.
In Pakistan, a large number of different types of animals are found ranging from microscopic animals to bigger animals. These animals are divided into different groups.
The coastal and off-shore waters of sindh & Baluchistan the rich in sea food. Obviously. Fishes, Prawns, Lobsters and other animals providing sea-food are found in rivers, lakes and seas. Fishes are in large number and a number of varieties.
Common fishes of Pakistan include rohu, Pullah, Khagga, Trout, mahasheer, flat fish, sea horse, malee, skates, rays, socliodien (dog – fish) etc.
The amphibians include frogs & toads. Our reptiles include crocodile, lizard &, turtles, cobra, krait, vipers & pythons are among our common snakes.
Pakistan is rich in a variety of flying birds every year a large number of migratory water birds like ducks visit our lakes. These together with quails, partridges the beautiful pheasants constitute a group called game birds. Other common birds are crane, water fowl, falcon, kite, peacock, pigeon & parrots.
Mammals make a major part of wild and domesticated animals. The hoofed mammals provide milk & meat. Common representatives are goats, sheep, deer, cows & buffaloes.
Grey Languor, rhesus monkey, markhor, snow leopard, wolf etc. are much endangered animals of the Pakistan.
If the balance of fIora, fauna and man is disturbed due to hunting & other means of distraction, each one would be megalitiely affected.
NOTE: Attempt Two questions from this section. Each question carries 7 marks.
25. Draw a neat and labeled diagram of the T.S. of the root of Brassica.
(i) TACTIC MOVEMENTS:
These movements are locomotors in which the plant body as a whole moves from one place to another in response to external stimuli such as light, chemicals, temperature etc. depending on the nature of the stimuli the tactic movements may be:
Tactic movement in response to the stimulation of sun light is called phototaxis. Motile plants swim towards light showing positive phototaxis and move away from strong light showing negative phototaxis. Phototaxis can be observed in Chlamydomonas and Euglena.
Tactic movement in response to certain chemicals is described as chemotaxis. The male gametes of bryophytes and pteridophytes are attracted by some chemicals secreted by females sex organs.
This is the movement in response to temperature. When there is a difference in temperature the unicellular algae are seen to move towards the warmer side.
(ii) NASTIC MOVEMENTS:
These are the movements of mainly dorsiventral organs like leaves and petals, induced by external stimuli such as contact, light and temperature etc. the direction of the movement is here determined by the structure of the plant it self and not by external stimulus. The response of the plant is always the same whatever is the direction from which the stimulus is acting.
Following are the main types of nastic movements:
(a) NYCTINASTY OR SLEEP-MOVEMENT:
This movement is caused by alternation of day and night. Flowers of Oxalis and leaves of leguminous plants open in the morning and close at night.
This movement is caused by variation in the intensity light. Flower of primrose open during the evening and night and remain closed during the day time.
This movement is caused. due to variations in temperature. Crocus and tulip flowers open in increased temperature.
It is the movement caused by mechanical stimuli such as contact I touch. The folding of leaves in Mimosa is the example of this movement. On touch the lower cells of leaf lose water and due to fall in turgidity leaves become flaccid and open again with the regain of turgidity.
OR Write down any seven points of importance of Vascular plants.
IMPORTANCE OF VASCULAR PLANTS:
(i) Many vascular plants specially angiosperms are source of food e.g. wheat, rice, maize, pulses etc.
(ii) Many vegetables come from vascular plants e.g. potato, cauliflower, radish, carrots, bean, lady finger, onion etc.
(iii) Many ingredients of our food also come from vascular plants e.g. mustard, sugar, coconut etc.
(iv) Many delicious fruits come from vascular plants e.g. apple, mango, apricot, banana, citrus etc.
(v) Timber is obtained from these plants, e.g. pinus, deodar, cedrus, sheesham, kikkar etc.
(vi) Many useful things are obtained from these plant, which serve as medicine e.g. Amaltas, cinchon, Ajwain etc.
(vii) Fiber of some plants are used in making cloth and rope such as cotton and jute.