SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(1) The building materials of protoplasm are:
(2) Plants, which derive their food from dead organic matter, are called:
(3) The tissue which conducts water and salts In plants is:
(4) DNA is found in:
(5) The egg laying mammal is:
* Duck bill
(6) The vitamin which helps in clotting of blood is:
(7) The fourth whorl of a flower is:
(8) This disease is caused by plasmodium:
(9) Microscope was invented by:
* Robert Hooke
(10) Seed develops from:
* None of these
(11) Star fish belongs to Phylum:
(12) Green plants in an ecosystem are:
* None of these
(13) The number of chambers in the heart of frog is:
* None of these
(14) Agaricus is commonly known as:
* Bread mould
* All of these
(15) The melodious voice of many birds come from:
SECTION”B” (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
NOTE:Answer 7 questions from this section.
(2) Write 3 salient features of the Cell Theory.
salient features of the cell theory:
(i) All organisms are made up of very small living units called cells.
(ii) In every cell there is a nucleus which controls all its activities. It has a chromatin network consisting of chromosomes. These are made of D.N.A which are responsible for hereditary characters.
(iii) Every cells has a fluid called Cytoplasm which has many organelles. In these Mitochondria golgi complex and Ribosome’s are very important.
(4) Define the following:
(i) Mitosis (ii) Species (iii) Physiology
It is the cell division in which the parent cell divide into two daughter cell in a way that the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells remains the same as in parent cell.
Species is the basic unit of classification. It consists of a group of organisms which has numerous common, physical features. The organisms are capable of inter breeding and producing fertile off spring.
It is the branch of Biology in which functions of different parts of living organism, are studied.
(6) Write three functions of Skeleton in man.
FUNCTION OF SKELETON IN MAN:
(i) It provides shape and support to the body.
(ii) It gives protection to vital organs such as lungs, heart· and brain.
(iii) It helps in locomotion.
(7) Write three characteristics of class Aves.
CHARACTERISTIC OF CLASS AVES:
(i) Their body is covered with feathers.
(ii) They are warm-blooded animals and maintain their body temperature constant.
(iii) The lay eggs, which have a large amount of yolk.
(8) Write notes on any two of .the following:
(i) Appendicitis (ii) Enzymes
(iii) Bronchitis (iv) Cholera
It is the inflammation (burning, painful sensation) of the appendix associated with vomiting and abdominal pain. It could be due to obstruction of the appendix either by faces or worms which cause localized swelling pain in right side of lower abdomen. In such a case, physician must be consulted immediately for diagnosis and treatment. If the condition remained ignored for some time, the appendix may burst in their abdominal cavity that could be extremely fatal for the patient.
Enzymes are chemical substances that work as catalyst in the chemical reactions of a cell, and are not used up themselves. Enzymes performing the process of digestion are called Hydrolytic enzymes.
It is the inflammation of the bronchial tubes which is caused by bacterial infection, or by smoking. When a person smokes tiny particles in smoke get caught on the living of trachea and bronchial tubes. Extra mucus is produced and the cilia stop beating. The mucous collects in the bronchial tube producing “smokers cough”. If the tubes are infected it causes chronic brochettes which may last longer.
It is a disease of bowels. It is caused by contamination of drinking ‘water by focal materials. It is caused by a bacterium vibrio cholera. It is transmitted by cockroaches flies and rats etc.
The incubation period is 1 to 5 days, followed by diarrhea and vomiting and watery stools. Severe dehydration results which may cause death.
A continuous dehydration with mineral salts and use of antibiotics like tetracycline are recommended for treatment.
(9) What is Metamorphosis? Define two types of Metamorphosis.
It is the process of passing through different stages of development from egg to the adult stage, in insects. Metamorphosis is of two types:
(i) Complete metamorphosis.
(ii) Incomplete metamorphosis
Complete Metamorphosis is the development of an insect through egg, larva, pupa and adult stages. The young one, the larva hatches out of the egg. It feeds actively and then encloses itself in a cover to become pupa. The pupa apparently is dormant but development takes place inside. The capsule then breaks and comes out the adult insect.
Examples: Example of insects in which complete metamorphosis takes places is mosquitoes, house flies.
In this type the young one called nymph emerges out of the egg. It is a miniature young one which closely resembles the adult except that it lacks wings. Reproductive organs are immature. The nymph becomes adult after development of wings and reproductive organs.
Examples of insects: Cock roach, Termite.
(10) Write names of three Endocrine glands. Also name, the hormones secreted by these glands.
The Different Endocrine glands of man are:
(i) Pituitary gland
(ii) Thyroid gland
(iii) Para thyroid gland
(v) Adrenal gland.
(vi) Ovary and testis.
(i) Pituitary gland:
Secretes at best nine different hormones.
(ii) Thyroid gland:
Secretes the hormone thyroxin.
(iii) Parathyroid gland:
Secretes hormone called parathyroid hormone. It regulates level of calcium and phosphorous in bones and blood.
Secretes digestive enzymes. The Islets produce insulin and glucagons.
(v) Adrenal gland:
Adrenal gland makes several steroid hormones which regulate level of glucose and minerals in blood. It also secretes adrenaline.
(vi) Ovary and testis:
Ovaries produce estrogens and testes produce androgens.
(11) Define Portal System. Name two types of Portal System found in frog.
The set of veins, which collect blood from one organ and discharge it into another are called portal veins, and, the system consisting of the veins doing this, is called portal system.
Kinds of Portal System:
There are two kinds of portal system in frog.
(i) Hepatic portal system.
(ii) Renal portal system.
(i) Hepatic Portal System:
Blood from the digestive system is taken to liver by Hepatic portal vein. From liver it enters the post cavil. Blood from hind limbs is collected by abdominal vein & taken to liver.
(ii) Renal Portal System:
The alternate route of blood from the hind limbs is by the way of a renal portal vein. The blood is collected by capillaries in hind·limbs which join to form renal portal vein. It opens into kidneys. From kidneys the blood enters post cavil by renal veins.
(SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS) BOTANY
NOTE: Answer 7 questions from this section.
(14) Define the following:
(i) Osmosis (ii) Symbionts (iii) Phototropism
Osmosis is a process by which solvent molecules (water) diffuse across selectively permeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to high solute concentration.
An association of two organisms in which both partners get benefits is called symbiosis. E.g. Nitrogen fining bacteria and roots of leguminous plants.
It is the movement of plant in response to the stimulus of unilateral light. Stems grow directly towards light.
(15) Define germination of seed. Describe two kinds of germination.
Germination: It the process during which a dormant embryo wakes up and begins to grow to form seedling.
There are two main types:
(i) Hypogeal Germination:
The cotyledons remain under the soil.
(ii) Epigeal Germination:
The cotyledons come above the soil.
(16) Define Photosynthesis. Write chemical equation to express photosynthesis.
The process by which plants make their food is called photosynthesis. In this process a plant can build sugar by taking carbon. dioxide from air and water from – the soil. Enzymes needed for this purpose are present in the cells and
energy is trapped by chlorophyll from sunlight.
(17) Write three points of importance of Fungi.
Economic importance of Fungi:
(i) Food: A number of edible fungi in the form of mushrooms are a source of nourishing and delicious food. Yeast another kind of fungi is used baking industry. Others are used in brewing and in cheese
(ii) Medicines: Antibiotics like penicillin Chloromycetin, Neomycin are fungi and used for cure and treatment.
(iii) Soil Fertility: Fungi maintain the fertility of soil by decomposing the dead organic matter.
(iv) Fermentation: Fungi cause fermentation by which ethanol; alcoholic beverages and organic acids are prepared.
(18) Define simple tissue and complex tissue in plants. Write two examples of each.
SIMPLE PLANT TISSUE:
Simple plant tissue is a tissue made up of one type of cells forming a uniform mass.
COMPLEX PLANT TISSUE:
Complex plant tissue is made up of more than one type of cells working together as a unit.
(19) Write three advantages of transpiration in plants.
IMPORTANCE OF TRANSPIRATION:
(i) By active transpiration, a suction force the transpiration pull is created which helps in the upward movement of water and minerals.
(ii) It also increases the rate of absorption.
(iii) It helps in evaporating excess amount of water.
(iv) It maintains a suitable temperature for the leaves and prevents over heating.
(v) It facilitates the ascent of sap.
(20) Write short notes on any two of the following:
(i) Plastids (ii) Pollination (iii) Heterotrophic plants
Plastids are organelles in the cells of plants, which contain different pigments. They are:
They have green pigment chlorophyll found in leaves and other green parts of a plant. They help in photosynthesis.
They have other different coloured pigments, and are found in flowers, fruits and other coloured parts of plant.
leucoplasts are colourless pigments found in cells of underground parts of a plant. They store food as starch.
Pollination: The transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of a flower is called Pollination. It is of two types..
(i) Self Pollination: Pollen grains are transferred from anther to stigma of same flower.
(ii) Cross Pollination: Pollen grains are transferred from anther to stigma of another flower of same species.
(iii) Heterotrophic plants:
These plants depend in one way or the other on other plants or other organisms. They do not have root hairs on their roots, and also cannot perform photosynthesis. Heterotrophic plants can be:
SECTION `C` (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
NOTE: Attempt 2 questions from this section.
23. Describe Darwin’s theory of evolution and explain four important points of this theory.
The main point of the Darwin’s theory are as follows:
(i) OVER PRODUCTION:
Living organisms reproduce rapidly so that the number of their offspring could increase rapidly.
(ii) STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE:
Due to the limited available resources of food, shelter, etc the of springs of species compete not only with each other but also with the members of different species to share these resources. In this struggle a large number of individuals of each species are eliminated. As a result the population remains stable.
(iii) HERITABLE VARIATIONS:
Individuals of a species differ from each other in their ability to obtain resources, withstand environmental extremes, etc. These differences in characters are called minor variations. Darwin concluded that survival in struggle for existence is not random but depends upon in part on the heredity constitution of the surviving individuals. Those individuals whose inherited characteristics fit them best to their environment would survive and produce more offspring than less fit individuals who will vanish.
Nature selects the fittest individuals to survive and reproduce As a consequence, the favorable variation are preserved through their inheritance to new young ones.
24. Write different types of teeth in man and describe their functions.
TYPES OF TEETH:
According to the shape and function following types of teeth are present in our oral cavity.
The flat chisel – shaped teeth present in front of oral cavity are incisors. They are eight in number; four in upper while four in the lower jaws. They are used in cutting.
Beside incisors lie canines on each side in both jaws, They are four in number and are pointed. They are used for tearing and pulling flesh. That’s why they are very long and prominent in carnivores such as lion. Herbivore animals usually do not have canines.
In both jaws each canine is followed by two premolars. They are 8 in number and each with two distinct edges. They are involved in grinding the food.
Three molars follow premolars of each side of both jaws. They are 12 in number. They also grind food. The last molar is called wisdom tooth. The arrangement of teeth can be represented by the following formula called dental formula, 1 2/2, C Ill, Pm 2/2, M 3/3. It represents each type of tooth in half of the upper jaw and half of the lower jaw.
25. Describe an experiment to prove that carbondioxide is necessary for photosynthesis. Draw its labeled diagram also.
Is carbon dioxide needed for Photosynthesis?
Keeping them in a dark room detaches two carbon plants. They are watered properly during this periocf. Each pot is enclosed in a transparent polythene bag as shown in figure.
A Petri dish containing soda lime (potassium hydroxide) is placed in one of the pots to a absorb any carbon dioxide” present in the polythene bag. In the other pot a Petri dish is placed containing sodium biocarbonate solution, which would produce carbondioxide. The plants are then left in light for,. several hours. A leaf from each pot is detached and tested for starch. The leaf from the pot containing soda lime does not, turn blue, soda lime had absorbed any carbon dioxide present in the bag. The leaf from the other pot where carbon dioxide was being released by the sodium bicarbonates solution turns , blue indicating the presence of starch. These results show that carbon-dioxide is essential for photosynthesis.
26. What is meant by Dispersal of Seeds and Fruits? Describe any two methods of dispersal in detail.
DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AND FRUITS:
For better and healthier propagation of plants, the seeds and fruits must be dispersed i such a way that they. not fall directly underneath the mother plant, because they soon exhaust the soil of its essential food constituents and compete for space, light and water. To guard against their contingencies, seeds and fruits have developed many special devices for their wide spread dispersal. It, thus ensures that the risk of a species of plant becoming extinct is reduced to minimum.
Following are some ways by which dispersal of seeds and fruits takes place.
1. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AND FRUITS BY WIND:
Tiny and lighter seeds and fruits which are produced in abundance are generally dispersed through wind. Due to their light weight, wind carries them to distant places as in grasses. Seeds and fruits of some plants are winged or hairy which help them to be blown by air from place to place. Cotton, sumbal and calatropis (Akk) are examples of seeds which are dispersed by wind.
2. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS & FRUITS BY WATER:
The seeds and fruits of the plants that grow in or along the banks of water bodies are adapted to float and are easily dispersed by water. They contain spongy tissue which renders them lighter, and allows them to float to distant Places e.g. lotus, coconut etc.
27. Draw a neat & labeled diagram of T.S. of Brassica Stem.