SECTION -A- MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (M.C.Qs)
SECTION -B- SHORT QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.2 Write any five suitable geographical conditions for the growth of wheat.
Five suitable geographical conditions for the cultivation and growth of wheat are following.
(i) Alluvial soil is required for the cultivation of wheat while sandy soil is suitable for the cultivation of wheat in cold regions.
(ii) Average rate of rainfall and moderate climate is required for the cultivation of wheat.
(iii) The temperature of serF to 60″F is required at the time of sowing wheat while at the time of harvesting the temperature should be 60″F to 70″F.
(iv) With the suitable rate of rainfall. the cultivation of wheat becomes better.
(v) The suitable supply of water or proper irrigation is increasing for the cultivation of wheat.
Q.3 Write any five suitable factors for the trade between two countries.
Five suitable factors for the trade between two countries are following.
(i) Land Location
(ii) Area and Structure
(iii) Mountains and Plateus
(iv) Means of Transportation
(v) Need of Commodities and ability to purchase
Q.11 Write down one industrial use of each of the following minerals.
(i) Silica Sand
It is used in the manufacturing of glass.
It is used for the manufacturing steel from pig iron.
It is used in cement industry.
(iv) Lime Stone
It is used in the manufacturing of cement and bleaching powder.
It is used in leather industry and textile industry.
Q.12 write down five means of irrigation in Pakistan.
Five means of irrigation in Pakistan are following.
Q.13 What is meant by soil? Write the kinds of soil?
The upper layer of the earth known as the Earth Crust in which plants grow is called Soil. The components of soil are not placed properly. The important kinds of soil found in Pakistan are following.
(i) Brown Soil
(ii) Arid Red Soil
(iii) Tropical Red Soil
(iv) Gray Soil
(vi) Loess Soil
(vii) Loamy Soil
Q.14 What do you mean by transportation? Write any three means of transport of Pakistan.
All the sources in a country which are used for travelling from one place to another and things are also transported from one place to another by means of them are called Means of Transportation. Means of transport commonly used in Pakistan are following.
(iv) Water ways
(vi) Motor Vehicles
Q.15 Name any five main cottage industries found in Pakistan along with their centres
Five main cottage industries found in Pakistan along with their countries are following.
(i) The industry earthenware and china clay pots is located in Thatta, Karachi, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas and other districts of Sindh.
(ii) The largest centre of the sports goods industry is Sialkot.
(iii)The centres of surgery instruments and cutlery are located in Punjab at Sialkot, Wazirabad and Gujranwala.
(iv)The cenres of carpet industry are located in Karachi, Hyderabad, Sukkur, Khairpur, Quetta, Ziarat, Multan and Faisalabad.
(v)The centres of wooden handicrafts are located in Chiniot and Lahore.
Q.16 Name five multipurpose projects in Pakistan.
Five multipurpose projects in Pakistan are following.
(i) Tarbella Hydel Projet
(ii) Mangla Hydel Project
(iii) Ghazi Brotha Hydel Project
(iv) Warsak Hydel Project
(v) Chasma Hydel Project
SECTION “C” DETAILED ANSWER QUESTION
Q.17 Draw the outline map of Pakistan and Insert the following:
(i) Karkoram, Hindukush, Sulaiman, Khirthan mountains
(ii) Cotton producing areas
(iii) Khyber Pass, Sui, Sindh Sagar Doab, Thar Desert For answer see Section “An, Q.l in Solved Paper Commercial Geography 200
Q.18 Write down about the suitable geographical conditions, areas of cultivation, production and trade of rice or
Cultivation Of Rice:
The detail of the favorable physical and geographical conditions for
the cultivation of rice are following
Rice is a plant of hot dry climate, “therefore 80·F to 90·F remains favourable for the cultivation of rice. The cultivation of rice is not possible in the cold climate however cold and dry season remains favourable for the harvesting of rice
Rice is plant of water, therefore water in large quantity is required for the cultivation and growth of rice. The areas where rate of rainfall is more than 40 inches remains favourable for the cultivation of rice but the average rate of rainfall in the most regions of Pakistan is less than 20 inches annually which is not enough for the cultivation of rice, therefore the storage of water is completed with the help of canals and tube wells
Alluvial fertile soil remains favourable for the cultivation of rice but the L clay or loamy soil remains most favourable for the cultivation of rice which has no ability to hold water for long. The soil with acidic properties remains most favourable for the cultivation of rice
PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION AND TRADE OF RICE
Rice is cultivated in many regions of Pakistan but the province of Sindh and the province Punjab have prominent status in the production of rice. Rice is cultivated over 10% of the total area of cultivation Rice is produced in large quantity in the upper districts of Punjab in the areas of Sialkot, Narowal, Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Shai.khupara, Kasur and Okara. After these Sargodha, Khushab. Toba-Tek-Singh, Faisalabad, Jang are other important regions. Besides these rice is cultivated in all canal irrigated areas of Punjab 54″10 of the total produ-xion of rice is obtained from Punjab. After Punjab, the province Sindh has prominent status in the production of rice. Basmati rice of Punjab is famous all over the world. In the province Sindh rice is cultivated in the districts of Larkana and Sukkur division. Besides these Nawabshah and Hyderabad are also famous in Sindh. 44% of the total production of rice is obtained from the province of Sindh. In N.W.F.P Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan, Swat, Karma Agency are the regions where rice is cultivated. Naseerabad district in famous is Balochistan for the cultivation of rice. 90% rice in Balochistan is obtained from this district. In Azad Kashmir rice is also cultivated on mountainous slopes with the irrigation of water from streams. The trade of rice is done on country level and rice is also exported to other countries Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the countries of Middle East are the big importers of rice from Pakistan. Rice is also exported to south America and Brazi
Cultivation of Sugarcane:
Sugarcane is an important cash crop of the world. Two-third of the sugar is obtained in the world by the use of sugarcane. Sugar is used by the people of every class. The demand of sugarcane in the world is high. Sugarcane is an ever green plant, it is like a bamboo which has a height of ten to twelve feet which contains sweet juice. It is produced in the countries having not climate. Many products are produced from the skin of sugarcane and it is also used in the manufacture of card board. The skins of sugarcane are also used as fodder for animals. According to the research of the experts. Sugarcane was first cultivated in India. After this Egyptian and African countries started to grow sugarcane
Favorable Geographical Conditions for the Cultivation of Sugarcane:
Favourable geographical conditions and factors for the cultivation of sugarcane are following
Sugarcane cannot be cultivated in extremely cold areas. The regions where temperature is below 400F, the cultivation of sugarcane is not possible. 700F to 800F temperature is required for the cultivation of sugarcane. Humidity is also necessary for the cultivation of sugarcane. Dry season is harmful for the growth of sugarcane
6 inches to 10 inches annual rate of rainfall is required for the cultivation of sugarcane. Artificial sources of irrigation can be used to over come the shortage of water. The season should be dry at the time of harvestipg. If rainfall appears at the time of harvesting then the sweetness of sugarcane becomes small
Alluvial soil and Volcanic ash remain favourable for the cultivation of sugarcane, the soil which contains lime is considered favourable for the cultivation of sugarcane. Sugarcane is cultivated by buds. In some areas, it is harvested from the upper part while the portion inside the earth remains left, thus the sugarcane which is planted at one time gives five or six crops, while buds are planted every year in some areas
Production, Distributions, Use and Trade of Sugarcane
The canal irrigated areas in the province Sindh, the province Punjab and the canal irrigated areas of N.W.F.P are important for the production of sugarcane. In Punjab sugarcane is cultivated on large scale at Faisalabad ]hang Toba Tek-Singh. In Lahore division sugarcane is cultivated at Kasur, Okara and Shaikhupura. In Multan division, sugarcane is cultivated at KhanewaI, Multan, Pakpattan, Saffiwat and Vehn. Sugarcane Is cultivated at Khanewal, Multan, Pakpattan, Sahiwal and Vehri. Sugarcane is cultivated in large quantity In Mandi Bahauddin. Sugarcane is also cultivated over some areas of Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur. In the province Sindh sugarcane is cultivated in large quantity in Mandi Bahauddin. Sugarcane is also cultivated over some areas of Dera Ghazi Khan and Rajanpur. In the province Sindh, sugarcane is cultivated in the areas of Khairpur, Sukkur, Nawabshah, San ghar. Hyderabad, Badin Thatta and Khairpur, Sukkur, Nawabshah, Sanghar, Hyderabad, Badin Thatta and Tharparkar. In N.W.F.P sugarcane is cultivated in Peshawar, Charsaddah, Mardan and Dera .Ismail Khan while in Balochistan sugarcane is cultivated over a limited areas. The district Nase erabad is famous for the cultivation of sugarcane in Balochistan. The use of sugarcane is common in sugar .nan ufac cu r in g transported to the markets and sugar manufacturing mills from the places of production.
Q.19 Write definition, importance and scope of commercial geography?
commercial geography importance and scope:
Commercial geography has great importance in the present Industrial and commercial period. By the study of commercial geography the agricultural resources of the world are known and the mineral resources for the development of industries. It gives information about the production and raw material resources for the preparation of commodities among different industries. Commercial geography gives information about the means of transportation for the progress of internal and external trade. It gives knowledge about different international markets. The study of commercial geography provides knowledge about the population of the world and helps in getting awareness about world rrade conditions. The importance of the study of commercial geography in practical life. its advantage and scope can be described as following.
(i) The students of commerce get information about the maintenance of their future by crioosrng specralfrled of trade through the study of commercial geography.
(ii) All traders of the world get knowledge about international markets and they become aware about the mineral. agricultural and industrial resources of the world.
(iii) The study of commercial geography also provides knowledge to the farmers. they get infurmation about best seeds. fertilizers. pesticides and modem technology of agriculture.
(iv) The economic experts get information for the development of economic planning with the comparison of commercial conditions of the world.
(v) ‘The successful bankers of the world which are involved in international. investment get useful information from the study of commercial geography by this the banking sector becomes more established.
(vi) The study of commercial geography gives a view of the agricultural. mineral, arid industrial development of the countries of the world which gives knowledge of thc resources for industrial development.
(vii) Many physical. economic and political factors play their role in t hc industrial development of the countries. commercial geography gives information aoo::! tbose conditions to industrialists which are helpful for the industrial progress
(viii) The study of commercial geography provides various set of knowledge by which the countries can use their resources with proper management. This proper use of resources is helpful to overcome the problems like unemployment, hunger and diseases.
In short, the commercial geography belongs to the distribution of resources, different kinds of human activities and their distribution in the world. It not only provide knowledge about the material resources of the world but also gives help in the development of trade and commerce because the awareness about the different resources is necessary for the development of trade and without this, the trade in experts and imports can not be successful. The international trade is flourished with the knowledge of commercial geography because the information about the problems of the people of other countries received from the study of commercial geography. The diplomacy has been sr rrred for the achievement of this purpose
Q.20 Write a short note on anyone of the following
Sports Goods Industry:
The mustry of sports good is also taken as an important cottage and small industry. The raw material required for the ploduction of sports goods Is available in abundance in certain parts of Pakistan. Soft timber and leather is required to make sports goods. Sports goods are produced at Sialkot and Lahore. These goods are also a source of earning foreign exchange Hockey, Cricket bat and ball, foot ball and rackets made in Pakistan are very popular in foreign countries. Sialkot is a big center of sports good industry while Lahore is the second center of sports goods industry. 1000 units of middle level have been established which are manufacturing sports good while 200 industrial units in Lahore are busy in manufacturing sports goods. This industry is counted as an important industry in Pakistan and it is an important source of earning foreign exchange. Wood, leather nylon wire, rubber and glue are used as raw material for the manufacturing of sports goods which is available in abundance in Pakistan. Ten thousand people are associated to this industry. The government has taken many steps for the i’:!velopmc!nt of this industry. Modern machines have been provided to this industry. Loans have also been provided to this industry and steps have been taken for internal and external transportation of sports goods. 4% of the total exports of Pakistan is obtained from sports goods industry and a foreign exchange of one arab 44 cores is earned from this industry.
Iron and Steel Industry:
In the beginning there was no factory of iron and steel established in Pakistan but after 1955, this industry began to grow. in 1973. the first steel mill was established With the cooperation of Russia. Iron Ore, manganese and coal are require, for the manufacturing of iron and steel. Pakistan imports this raw material from Australia, Brazil, Canada, and India, however the coal which IS obtained from Balochistan provides <;% of the requirement. Pakistan Steel Mills manufactures Pig iron, Iron Sheets, coal tar etc. it i:Jthe most established institutior. in heavy industries of Pakistan. Pakistan sceel mill produced 735 tonnes pig iron. 443 tonnes of coke, 25 tonnes coai tar ••• ad 309 tonnes of iron shec ‘:3. Pakistar. to,,1 factory was established In Karachi where machinery and to.JJS are manufactured by the use cf iron and steel. Besides this heavy Mechanical Complex wai established in 1968 win, the co-ope-arion of China where the machines of sugar making, cement making, truck :,odies and boilers etc. are manufactured by iron and steel. After this another project was started with the co-operation of China in 1972. Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works and steel for drn.
u.ufacture of ships ane’ boats
(ii) Imports and Exports of Pakistan
Imports and Exports of Pakistan:
The comm-vlities, raw material or manufactured products whi~h country purchase’S from othe””i countries to fulfill the requirements are called Imports. For example there is a shortage of war equipment, machinery and mineral oil in Pakistan and Pakistan imports them from other countries
Those products, raw materials or manufactured commodities which are surplus from the actual requirements of a country and it sells them to other countries and gains foreign exchange are caIJed Exports. For example in Pakistan Cotton and rice are produced in excess of its demand in the country, therefore the surplus quantity of these is exported
Major Exports of Pakistan
The major exports of Pakistan are consisted of agricultural production in Pakistan has gained a prominent status in the foreign trade. The things which are exported to other countries are included cotton, cotton cloth, rice, sugar, carpets, fish surgical instruments, fruits and vegetables. Pakistan is also exporting salt, sports goods, defence products and oil seeds. The major exports of Pakistan are following.
(iii) Leather and Skins
(v) Fish and the products obtained from fish
(vi) Cotton Cloth
(vii) Prepared Dresses
(viii) Hosiery Products
(ix) Sports Goods
(xi) Petroleum & its Products
(xii) Surgical Instruments
(xv) Fruits and Vegetables
The relations of Pakistan have been established with the countries of the world which can be described as following.
(1) The chief exports of Pakistan is Cotton. Raw cotton and Cotton cloth are exported to America, Japan, England, Hong Kong and other European countries.
(2) Pakistan also exports leather and skins. A large quantity of skins is exported to Germany, Britain, Japan and France.
(3) Pakistan is self-sufficient in the production of rice and surplus quantity of rice is exported to other countries. The big purchasers of rice are Saudi Arabia, Russia, Iran and Britain.
(4) Pakistan is earning valuable foreign exchange from the exports of sports goods to other countries. The sports goods of Sialkot is famous to all over the world and nearly all small and large countries of the world are the purchasers of it
Rice, Cotton, Cotton Yarn, Cotton cloth, Fish, Carpet, domestic commodities, leather and leather products, sports goods- c:;tlt. surgical instruments, fruits _a~dy’eget.able” are the major exports of Pakistan. The exporting trade of Pakistan is done with America, Japan, France, England, United Germany, Italy, Iran, China, Russia, Singapore. Hong Kong. Bulgaria. Holland, Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh. Nigeria, Malaysia, Indonesia, Middle East and Gulf states. Pakistan also makes exchange trade with some countries. China and Russia are included among these countries.
Major impnrts of Pakistan
Machinery is the major import of Pakistan. Petroleum is also imported from other countries, equipments for means of transport, iron, steel and electrical products are imported in large quantity from Japan and China. Pakistan has its trade relation with nearly all the countries in the world but especially its relations have been established with South Eastern countries, Western Europe and Northern American countries. The major imports of Pakistan are following.
(i) Defence Equipment
(ii) Motor Vehicles
(iii) The Products made by Metal
(iv) Mineral oil and Petroleum
(viii) Equipment for Transport
(xi) Stationary Products
(xii) Edible Oil
(xiii) Chemical Substances
(xv) Electric Products
The relation of Pakistan with other countries in importing trade can be described as following
(1) Equipment for transport, iron and steel products, electric goods in large quantity is imported from Japan, China, America, and other European countries.
(2) Petroleum and its products are imported from Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Iran.
(3) Vegetation, Edible oil, milk and pulses are imported from America and Bangladesh.
(4) Tea is imported in large quantity from Sri Lanka and Tanzania.
80% importing trade of Pakistan is done with Japan, China, Italy, France, Hong Kong, America and United Arab Emirates. Pakistan imports exceed its exports. Pakistan runs a deficit in trade with the result that it is under huge annual debit of 3 billion dollars. Pakistan has to balance its international trade with more exports. This will be possible by improving standard of its goods and bringing the prices of its goods at the competitive level with other countries of the world
Q.21 Write down in detail about the various kinds of forests found in Pakistan
kinds of forests found in Pakistan:
In Pakistan only 4.5% land is under forests. Provincial distribution in Pakistan indicates 2.7% land under forests in Punjab, 4.2% in Sindh, 15.6% in N.W.F.P and 2.1% in Balochistan. The climate of Pakistan is too dry for growing forest s except in the Northern hilly area and sub-mountain hills, where forests are dense due to sufficient rainfall and hill slopes. In Pakistan the forest area is being reduced due to ruthless cutting of forests, use of land for construction of houses and due to rivers erosion every year. The forests in Pakistan have been divided into six parts with respect to the climate and regional division
These forests are found in North and North Western mountain area. These areas include Swat, Chitral, Abbotabad, Muree and Mansehra. These are evergreen, coniferous soft wood forests because annual rainfall in these areas in more than 100 centimetres. The principal coniferous trees include fir, deodar, bluepine and spruce. They grow generally on a height 1000 to 4000 metres above the seal level. Below 1000 metres high grow trees like oak, maple and birch. Walnut, chestnut, mulberry, apple and other fruit trees. These trees are good source of timber and fruits.
These forests grow at a height of 1000 metres above the area of sea level. These are found in Kohat, Mardan, Rawalpindi, .Acrcck, Gujrat and Jehlum districts. The most popular trees include Phulahi, Kahu, Jand, Shisham, Poplar and black berry. These are hard wood trees and used for fire and for construction work.
Dry Western Mountainous Forest
These forests are found in Quetta, Kalat division, Zhob and Ziarat, at the height of three thousand to ten thousand feet mountainous regions. Due to short rainfall, they are not so dense and thick. The rainfall is common in winter and it is usually in form of Snowfall, therefore the trees in these forests are not tall. Thorn bearing shurb are also grow in these forests. The trees like Chilghoza, Pine, Juniper, Sanobar, Walnut and Artemisia maritime which lie on high altitude
In the plain areas of Pakistan where rainfall is 20 to 30 inches annually, the Riverine forests grow there. These forests usually found near rivers, streams or water ways. These are commonly known as “Bela Forests” or plain forests. These forests, trees like Shisham, acacia, mulberry are found in these forests. In winter the leaves of these trees fall due to the shortage of water. These forests are also found in the canal areas of Punjab and Sindh.
These forests have been planted where canal water is available in abundance. These areas are Changa Manga, Chicha Watni, Khanewal, Thai, Shore Kot, Bahawalpur, Sukkur, Taunsa, “Guddu and Kotri. T”he most popular trees in these forests are Shisham, Mulberry and eucalyptus
Coastal forests are seen along the coast line of Sindh and Balochistan covering an area of 3 million acres. These forests are evergree!1′ short height, slow growing and are managed under selection forest system. The Mangrove forests are breeding grounds for fish and shrimps. Wood is obtained from the trees is used as fuel. Coconut tree and grass are also grow here