SECTION -A- MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (M.C.Qs)
SECTION -B- SHORT QUESTIONS ANSWER
Q.2 Define the Soil. Write its different kinds
Soil and Is Kind:-
For Answer See Q.No.13 in Solved Paper Com.Geography 2011
Q.3 Write down the suitable Geographical conditions for the growth of Rice.
The suitable geographical conditions for the growth of Rice are following.
Rice ‘is cultivated in early summer. Its cultivation requires a higher temperature more than 80° F.
(ii) The cultivation of rice is not possible in areas of severe cold or where temperature goes below freezing point.
(iii) Rice is known as a plant of water, it requires sufficient amount of water for its growth. The areas having a rainfall more than 40 inches-are most suitable for its cultivation.
(iv) Alluvial soil is very suitable for the cultivation of rice but some amount of clay is mixed with alluvial soil it becomes more productive.
Q.4 Write the factors which affects the climate of Pakistan.
The factors which affect the climate of Pakistan are following.
(i) The direction of wind
(ii) Sea water currents
(iii) Distance from sea
(iv) Height from sea level
(v) Clouds and rain
Q.5 Write down any five causes of the agriculture backwardness of Pakistan.
Causes of the Agricultural Backwardness of Pakistan:
The Cause§ or agricultural backwardness of Pakistan are following.
(i) The system of land division in Pakistan is very defective, the large portion of agricultural lands is under the ownership of landlords while the cultivators make cultivation on their lands on commission.
(ii) Very small rate of commission destroys the efficiently of labour of the cultivators, thus agriculture remains backward.
(iii) Due to undeveloped means of irrigation and shortage of water at the time of establishment of Pakistan, the agricultural sector remained backward.
(iv) Agricultural equipments has great importance in large agricultural production but old methods and old equipments are still being used for agricultural
production in Pakistan.
(v) For large agricultural production, high quality seeds and chemical fertilizers have great importance. Due to the sue of low quality seeds, unavailability of fertilizers and pesticides also made the agricultural sector backward
Q.6 Give five Suggestions to improve the Agriculture production.
Five Suggestions to improve the Agricultural production are following.
(i) Steps should be taken to increase the literacy ratio in rural areas and agricultural education should be provided to cultivators.
(ii) Mechanical farming should be introduced under co-operative farming schemes.
(iii) The facilities of credit on easy installments should be provided to cultivators for purchasing modern equipments.
(iv) Improved qualities of seads and fertilizers should be provided on concessional rates.
(v) Irrigation facilities should be improved in dry areas.
Q.7 What is salinity and water logging? Write its harmful affects.
salinity and Water logging Harmful effect:
If carial irrigated water does not use ith care then this water is absorbed into the earth. If the underground water table is raised to the upper surface then it is called as water logging. When a white layer if minerals is stuck on the surface of the earth then it is called salinity. Large canal areas in the province of Punjab and Sindh have been reddened unless due to water logging and salinity. Tube wells have been installed and water logging tubes have been dug to controlehe problems of water loazinz and salinity.
Q.8 Name any five largest industries of Pakistan.
The name’s of five largest industries of Pakistan are following.
(i) Cotton textile industry
(ii) Woolen textile industry
(iii) Iron and Steel industry
(iv) Fertilizer industry
(v) Sugar industry
Q.9 Write the animal resources of Pakistan.
The animal resources of Pakistan are following.
(i) In Pakistan a large variety of cattle are domesticated and some good bleeds of cows, buffaloes and oxen are found in various areas.
(ii) Sheeps are mainly reared in the drier parts and the slopes of mountainous areas of Pakistan.
(iii) In mountainous areas of Khyber Pakhtoonkhaw and Balochistan a large number of goats are reared for gelting meat and skins from them.
(iv) In Pakistan cornel serves as an important means of transportation in the deserts regions. Horses, donkeys and mules are also used as the means of transportation.
(v) Poultry farming is also becoming popular in Pakistan. In sub-tropical regions also. It requires high temperature at the time of cultivation 80°F to lOO°F temperature remains better for its culvitation. At the time of picking 60°F temperature remains sufficient.
Naturally 20 inches to 40 inches annual rainfall is required for the cultivation of cotton. In Pakistan, the average annual rate of rainfall in Pakistan is 20 inches in plain areas, therefore cotton is cultivated in Pakistan through artificial means of irrigation. Excess amount of water is harmful for cotton plant. Only three to four times water irrigation per day is sufficient for the growth of , cotton.
The alluvial ~oil is more suitable for the growth of cotton. The soils having a mixture of clay and sand give better results. In Pakistan, cotton is mostly cultivated in dry areas of Punjab and Sindh provinces.
Production, Distrobution and Trade of Cotton in Pakistan:
In Pakistan, the cotton is mainly cultivated in the canal irrigates areas of the province Punjab and the province Sindh. In Punjab, cotton is cultivated near all divisions. The districts of .. Multan division Vehari, Ludharan, Khanewal, ¥ultan and Sahival are on the fop ortneliSt-nafiawalpurTs on the second number. In Bahawalpur division, cotton is cultivated in the districts Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Bhawal Nagar, Deraghazi Khan ranks third in the production of cotton. Cotton is cultivated on large area in Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazikhan and Rajanpur. In Faisalabad in Okara and in Sargodha division, cotton is produced in Sargodha. The province Punjab produces 80 percent cotton.
The canal irrigated areas of the province Sindh have prominent status in the production of cotton. cotton is cultivated in Hydrabad, Dadu and Badin districts in Hyderabad division. In Sukkar division, cotton is cultivated in districts Sukkar, Khairpur, Ghotki, Nawabshah and Noshero Feroz. Cotton also cultivated in Tharparkar and Sanghar. In Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, cotton is cultivated in Bannu and in Dera Ismail Khan. In Balochistan, the cultivation of cotton is limited in the canal irrigated areas. These areas are located in the North cast of Balochistan. Cotton is an important cash crop of Pakistan. Pakistan has a perminent status among the cotton
producing countries of the world. Cotton also plays very important role in the development of the economy of Pakistan. Cotton is known as the silver fibre, it is also called as cash fibre of Pakistan S% of the national production is obtained from cotton. Two types of cotton is grown in Pakistan, the first is known as local cotton while the other is known as American cotton.
Wheat is a winter crop “or the good quality production of wheat. at least 100 days arc required during the average temper .•rur e rerni .•ns 66″F. The temperature S(1’F rernams very suitable for the cultivation of wheat However 70″F to S(J’F remains favourable during the harvesting of wheat.
The average rate of rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20 inches while the rate of rainfall during winter season is very low, therefore wheat is cultivated with the help of artificial irtigation. Canal irrigation is not possible in Baluchistan and in the region. of the plateaus therefore wheat is cultivated there with the help of rain water. If rain water appears in time then good crops is produced otherwise the production rcmians very low.
There is a profound effect of the ferrile soil on the production AllUVIal soil in Pakistan Is very fertile which is very suitable for the cultivation of wheat The presence of lime and nitrogen is necessary in the soil. The fertility of sni! can be increased by using the fertilizers.
PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION AND JlADI Of WHEAT IN PAKISTAN:
Wheat is cultivated in all four provinces of Pakistan but the production of wheat is the most common in the canal irrigated regions of the Punjab 011 ” Sindh. The reason for this production is ~he fertility of land due to alluvial The area where rainfall is low, artificial sources of irrigation canals, Tube we , ere are used to supply water to the crop. \Vheat is cultivated over an exrens ve area in Pakistan but per hectare production of wheat is less than the producrron of wheat in other developed countries of the world. The prodcution and distribution of wheat in Pakistan is following.
(i) In the province Punjab, wheat’ is cultivated in Sialkot, Gujranwala, Faisa .. bad, Sargodha, Multan SahiwaI and Bhawalpur
(ii) In the province Sindh, Wheat is cultivated in Hyderabad, Khairpur, Nawabshah and Tharparkar.
(iii) In N.W.F.P, Wheat is cultivated in Mardan, Peshawar and Bannu.
(iv) Wheat is cultivated in tribal areas of the province Baluchistan.
(v) In Azad Kashmir, wheat is cultivated in limited quantity with the help of rain water.
The population of Pakistan is Vast therefore the great part of the production of wheat is consumed in the country thus the trade of wheat is done at country level. The big centres of the production of wheat are Karachi, Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Nawabshah, Sukkar, Larkana, Pashin, Peshawar, Mardan, Sawat and Kohat and the centres are also located in the big cities of punjab. The wheat produced in Pakistan is transported to the large markets of Pakistan from the centres of production with the help of different means of transportation like railways and trucks. From the markets wheat is distributed among different parts of the country. When the production of wheat becomes low due to drought or the destruction of crops and the production is less than the needs of jhe country then wheat is imported from the other countries.
Q.18 Write about the geographical conditions suitable for production, distribution and trade of Wheat or Cotton.
“Wheat is the furniamental food of the people of Pakistan. Wheat is the crop of winter and it is cultivated in various parts. Wheat plant belongs to grass family. The height of wheat plant is 3 to 5 feet. Wheat is cultivated through irrigation and it is also cultivated with the help of rain water.
FAVORABLE PHYSICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF WHEAT:
Wheat is cultivated over 37.1 % of the total area of cultivation. Pakistan ranks 10th in the production of wheat. Favourable physical conditions and the area of cultivation affect the production of wheat. Favourable physical and geographical conditions for the cultivation of wheat are following
The climate should be favorable for the cultivation of any cro? otherwise the-production will become low. The climate of Pakistan is favorable for the.cultivation of wheat
every big city of Pakistan, there are various poultry centres
Q.11 Name Five major imports of Pakistan.
Five major imports of Pakistan are following.
(i) Defence Equipment
(ii) Molar Vehicles
(iii) Mineral oil or Petroleum
Q.13 Write the Energy sources of Pakistan.
The energy resources of Pakistan are following.
(i) Coal (ii) Natural Gas
(Hi) Mineral oil or Petroleum
(v) Thermal electricity
(vi) Nuclear power energy
(vii) Solar energy
Q.14 Write down the functions of Trade Bank.
The functions of Trade Banks are following.
(i) Trade banks receive deposits from people and keep it safe in their accounts.
(ii) Trade banks issue loans to traders and businessmen against securities and earn project. ,
(iii) These banks also provide services of transfer of money.
(iv) These banks provide services of discounting the bill of exchange.
(v) They provide utility services and also provide lockers to their account holders.
Q.15 Define Money and write its characteristics,
An instrument which is used as a medium of exchange in bilteval transactions is called Money.
(i)Money is an important medium of sale and purchase of commodities. It is used as an instrument for exchange.
(ii) The value of all commodities can be determined through money.
(iv) The value of money is more stable than other instruments of exchange, thus it can be used for defered payments.
Q.19 Define the Commercial Geography. Describe its scope, importance and advantages in everyday life?
Commercial Geography, Scope Importance and Advantages:
The Study of man and his economic activities under varying sets of conditions for the welfare of mankind is called commercial geography. It is the knowledge of all activities of man which he adopts for earning his livelihood. It gives information about all resources, activities institutions and human capabilities which arc helpful in earning livelihood.
Commercial Geography and Thinkers:
The definitions of commercial geography has been given by the experts of economics and business studies in different ways. By these definitions not only the scope of this subjects is cleared but the importance in daily life is also explained. The different definitions of commercial geography arc following.
(i) According to Professor Marthi who says as given his opinion about commercial geography that commercial geography is a branch of geography which deals with the study of commodities on this earth and found from inside of the earth useful for human beings, their production, exchange and division.
(ii) According to Professor Duddley Stamp commercial geography is the branch of geography which deals with the study of production of commodities, materialistic resources, their division, exchange and their sale and purchase.
(iii) According to Professor Herbert commercial geography is actually that knowledge which gives and explains a complete picture of world resources and teaches the use of different resources obtained from the earth for the welfare of mankind.
(iv) According to professor Earl. B. Shah commercial geography is the knowledge about the different resources of earning livelihood of man and its gives knowledge about economic and commercial activities of human being.
(v) Professor J. Russal says to explain the nature of commercial geography that its gives information about the division of economic activities and different methods of earning livelihood.
(vi) According to Professor N.A. Siddiqui, commercial geography provides knowledge about the production activities of the world, their trade and the geographical facts related to them. If we take a review of the different definitions of commercial geography then it is’ cleared that these definitions explain the scope and nature of the commercial geography through the nature of commercial geography has been explained in which different ways in these definitions but it is cleared that according to these definition the fundamental nature of commercial geography in these definitions are almost same thus we can not say that one definitions is better than the other because all the thinkers have explained one common thing which is the commercial activities of man and the distribution of material resources in the world and their collective knowledge is commercial geography.
Importance and Advantage and Scope of the Study of Commercial Geography:
Commercial geography has great importance in the present industrial and commercial period. By the study of commercial geography the agricultural resources of the world are known and the mineral resources for the development of industries. It gives information about the production and raw material resources for the preparation of commodities among different industries. Commercial geography gives information about the means of transportation for the progress of internal and external trade. It gives knowledge about different international markets. The study of commercial geography provides knowledge about the population of the world and helps in getting awareness about world trade conditions. The importance of the study of commercial geography in practical life, its advantage and scope can be described as following.
(i) The students of commerce get information about the maintenance of their future by choosing special filed of trade through the study of commercial geography.
(ii) All traders of the world get knowledge about international markets and they become aware. about the mineral, agricultural and industrial resources of the world.
(iii) The study of commercial geography also provides knowledge to the farmers, they get information about best seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and modern technology of agriculture.
(iv) The economic experts get information for the development of economic planning with the comparison of commercial conditions of the world.
(v) The successful bankers of the world which are involved in international, investment get useful. information from the study of commercial geography by this the banking sector becomes more established.
(vi) The study of commercial geography gives a view of the agricultural, mineral and industrial development of the countries of the world which gives knowledge of the resources for industrial development
(vii) Many physical, economic and political factors play their role in the industrial development of the countries,. commercial geography gives information about those conditions to industrialists which are helpful for the industrial progress.
(viii) The study of commercial geography provides various set of knowledge by which the countries can use their resources with proper management. This proper use of resources is helpful to overcome the problems like unemployment, hunger and diseases.
In short, the commercial geography belongs to the distribution of resources, different kinds of human activities and their distribution in the world. It not only provide knowledge about the material resources of the world but also gives help in the development of trade and commerce because the awareness about the different resources is necessary for the development of trade and without this, the trade in experts and imports can not be successful. The international trade is flourished with the knowledge of commercial geography because the information about the problems of the people of other countries received from the study of commercial geography. The diplomacy has been started for the achievement of this purpose .
(ii) Petroleum or Mineral Oil
Mineral oil is an important wealth of the modern age. It is a source of generating energy. Mineral oil is found in raw condition which is refined in the oil refineries to get petrol and other by products like kerosene oil, diesel, plastic, candle, lubricating oil and baseline. Pakistan produces about 15% oil of the total requirements of the country. The remaining 85% requirements is met from the import of oil from other countries. The oil resources of Pakistan are located in Potowar Plateau, Khor, Dhullian, Kot Mayyab, Sarang in Attock district, Balkasar in Chakwal district, Joyamir in district Iehlum, Dhodak in Dera Ghazi Khan. In Sindh oil has been discovered at Badin, Hyderabad, Sanghar and Dadu districts. Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC) is responsible for exploration of oil in the country
Q.21 Write notes on any TWO of the following:
Fishing Industry In Pakistan:
Fish is available- in abundance in the rivers, canals and seas of Pakistan. Fishing is classified as the initial commercial activity of man. Fish is the important part of the Fish Industry and different kinds of fish are obtained through fresh water as well as from marine water in large quantity. The fish which is obtained in Pakistan fulfills the good requirements of the country but valuable foreign exchange is also earned by exporting fish to other countries. Fish industry is a source of providing employment to a large number of people. According to an estimate more than two million people arc associated to fish industry. The fresh water fish is obtained from the rivers in internal areas of Pakistan and it is sold in local markets, Marine fishing is done in the coastal area of the south of Pakistan, this region is very suitable for the development of marine fish. The fish obtained from ocean is protected after making it dry and then it is exported to Central Asian countries, Japan, England, Sri Lanka, France, Germany and America. The share of fish industry in the total exports of Pakistan is 3 to 5 percent. The annual production of fish was 628QOO tonnes during 1999-2000. Fish and Prawns are considered as important exports of Pakistan. Fish industry is an important source of earning foreign exchange, therefore the government is trying to organize fish industry. Loans at easy terms and conditions are being provided to fishermen so that they could buy big boats for catching fish and catch fish in deep water. The nets of superior quality are also being provided at low prices. The fish harbours and fish markets have been established near the seaports. The weather stations have also been built near the coast and on islands so that immediate information of changing
the weather could be given to the fisherman. A training institute for fishing has been constructed by the government, thus the fish industry in Pakistan is being organized gradually .
(II) Cotton Industry:
Cotton industry is the largest and extensive industry of Pakistan. 480 to 850 cotton handlooms are working in Pakistan: All four provinces have the mills of cotton textile. During 1980 to 1990 cotton industry in Pakistan was nourishing wall but 1990 – 1999 the production of cotton textile was badly affected because of various reasons. The production of cotton was badly affected because of floods in Pakistan. During 1990 Many small units of cotton industry were dosed.
There were only three cotton mills were present at the establishment of Pakistan. Cotton was cultivated on large scale in Sindh and Punjab before partition. After the establishment of Pakistan first cotton textile mill was established in Karachi. After the establishment Pakistan Industrial Corporation in 1952 many new industrial units were established in Pakistan. Many cotton
textile mills were established during this period. During 1987 – 1988, Pakistan got prominent status in exporting cotton yarn to other countries. During 1998 Pakistan earned 54 billion rupees from the external trade of cotton clothes 40 to 50 percent of the total industrial labourers of Pakistan arc associated with cotton industry. Cotton textile mills have been established in four provinces of Pakistan.
(iii) Leather Industry and Its Produds
Leather Industry in Pakistan is growing day by day. In Pakistan cattle rearing is common along with agriculture. The skins of animals are used in the manufacturing of leather. Leather tanneries are situated in every big town of Punjab. In Pakistan more than 300 leather tamneries are working at various parts. First skins and leather are exported to other countries. Leather tanneries first produced common leather which is generally used in manufacturing shoes. After adopting chrome proassing method, many other leather products were started to manufacture in Pakistan. Various kinds of leather arc obtained through this method the big centres of leather tanning are working in Karachi and Lahore. In Sialkot, Multan, Rawalpindi and Hyderabad leather tanneries are also working. Now leather tanneries have also been established in the cities of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Balochistan. After tanning leather various items such as suitcase, table lamps and flower pots are manufactured. Ladies hand bags and various other products arc also manufactured from leather 90 percent of total production of leather products is exported to other countries .