SECTION “A” MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (M.C.Qs)
Q.1 Choose the correct answer for each from the given options
(i) Commercial Geography is a part of:
(a) Physical Geogrpahy
(b) Economic Geography
(c) Political Geography
(d) None of these
(ii) The correct name of the longest glacier ofPakistan is:
(d) Ras Koh .
(iii) The driest and the hottest month in Pakistan is:
(iv) The largest barrage in Pakistan is :
(a) Chashma Barrage
(b) Sukkur Barrage
(c) Jinnah Barrage
(d) Tounsa Barrage
(v) Cholistan Desert is in :
(d) KhyberPakhtun Khwa
(vi) The ship-breaking industry in Pakistan is at:
(d) Bin Qasim
(vii) The colour of sandy soil is :
(viii) Forests control pollution by supplying:
(a) Dirty air
(b) Dense air
(c) Ckar air
(d) Wet air
(ix) The breeds of buffaloes which are well known for Dillk :
(a) Nili and Kuradi
(b) Red and Thari
(c) Bhognari and Dhani
(d) Damoni and Koni
(x) For our agriculture, Water-logging and Salinity is :
(a) A great threat
(b) A large benefit
(c) A boom
(d) None of these
(xi) It Is a crop of Rabi season:
(xii) It is mostly used in cement and steel industries:
(d) None of these
(xiii) The oil refinery of Multan is named:
(a) Pakistan Refinery
(b) Pak-Arab Refinery
(c) Attack Refinery
(d) National Refinery
(xiv) Main Centre of Cotton Textile in Punjab is:
(xv) The wood-pulp is used in making :
(xvi) Pakistan Steel Mills was established in Karachi with the help of:
(xvii) The highway between Lahore and Peshawar is called:
(a) Grand Trunk Road
(b) Super Highway
(c) National Highway
(d) Indus Highway
(xviii) Post, telegram, telephone and television are the means of:
(d) None of these
(xix) Friendly bilateral relations are compulsory for :
(d) None oi these
(xx) It is used as a cheap fuel for industry:
(c) Natural Gas
SECTION “B” SHORT QUESTION ANSWER
Q.2 Describe atleast five advantages of the study of Commercial Geography.
Five advantages of the study of commercial geography are following:
(i) The students of commerce get information about the maintenance of their future by choosing a special field of trade.
(ii) All traders cf the world get knowledge about international trade and market and they become aware about the mineral agricultural and industrial resources of the world.
(iii) The study of. economic and commercial geography also provide knowledge for farmers. They get information about best seeds, fertilizers, pesticides and modem agricultural technology.
(iv) Economic experts get information for the development of economic planning with the comparison of -commercial conditions of the world.
(v) The successful bankers of the world which are involved in international investment get useful information from the study of commercial geography, by this the banking sector becomes mm-established
Q.3 Write five causes of die lack of good harbours in : Pakistan.
The Causes of Lade of Good Harbours In Pakistan
Five causes of die lack of good harbours in Pakistan are following:
(i) The facilities of portale water are not available at the coastal areas of Pakistan.
(ii) Most of the coastal areas in Pakistan consist of Plateaus, marshy and desert areas. –
(iii) The facilities of transportation are not available at the coastal areas of Pakistan.
(iv) The coastal areas in Pakistan are broken at various places.
(v) The coastal areas of Pakistan are less populated and less developed.
Q.4 Name five passes of Pakistan.
Passes of Pakistan
The names of five passes of Pakistan are following:
(i) Khyber Pass
(ii) Tochi Pass
(iii) Kurram Pass
(iv) Gomal Pass
(v) Bolan Pass
Q.5 Write five benefits of rivers for our country.
The Benefits of Rivers
Five benefits of rivers in our country are following.
(i) Rivers play an important role in the irrigation system of crops.
(ii) Rivers playa role in the transportation.
(iii) Rivers in our country are the source of providing fresh water fish.
(iv) Rivers also provide help in the production of electricity.
(v) Rivers are the source of providing water in the canals of our country.
Q.6 Write five kinds of soil on colour basis.
Kinds Of Soil
Five kinds of soil on the basis of colour are following:
(i) Arid Red Soil
This kind of soil contains a large amount of minerals including iron and phosphorus; It is-suitable for cultivation. This kind of soil is found in the mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
(ii) Blackish Soil
This kind of soil is formed from valconoes, This kind of soil . is found in Jacobabad Sibbi and Dera Ghazi Khan. This kind of soil is fertile and suitable for agriculture
(iii) Brown Soil
This soil has dark brown colour and it is found in Himalayas Mountains, Hindukush Mountains and in the salt range. This soil is fertile and the cultivation is done on this soil.
(iv) Gray Soil
This kind of soil is found in Pakistan in Doabs and in those regions where the climate is dry. This kind of soil is fertile and suitable for cultivation.
(v) Yellow Soil
This kind of soil is also known as Sandy Soil. This kin of i soil is found in desert areas. In Pakistan, this kind of soil is found in the deserts of Tharparkar, Thal and Cholistan.
Q..7 Name five industries of Pakistan dependent on forests.
Industries Dependent on Forests
The names of five industries dependent on forests are following:
(i) Paper Industry
(ii) Furniture Industry
(iii) Medicine Industry
(iv) Sports Goods Industry
(v) Match Industry
Q.8 Describe fiye causes of large amount of fish found in sea near Pakistan.
The Causes of Large Amount of Fish found Near Sea
Five causes of large amount of fish found near sea are following:
(i) A lot of opportunities are available of catching fish from sea.
(ii) The coast of Pakistan is 550 miles long and suitable for fishing.
(iii) The season of the coastal areas in Pakistan remains almost dry.
(iv) Storm winds in sea do not blow and the atmosphere remains almost peaceful.
(v) A large amount of sea food is available for the” growth of fish.
Q.9 Why are water-logging and salinity increasing in Pakistan Describe five causes of it.
The Causes 0′ Water Logging and Salinity
Five causes of water logging and salinity are following.
(i) Water logging and salinity is produced due to the increase of water table of underground water because of the presence of rivers and canals.
(ii) Excessive irrigation also causes to produce water logging and salinity.
(iii) Water logging and salinity is produced because of the defective system of the drainage of underground water.
(iv) The less availability of water also causes the problem of water logging and salinity.
(v) The presence of large amount of salts causes to produce the problem of water logging and salinity.
Q.10 Write five uses of cotton.
The Uses of Cotton
Five uses of cotton are following:
(i) Cotton is used in the manufacture cotton clothes.
(ii) It is used in the manufacture of bad sheets, covers and quilt.
(iii) Oil is obtained from cotton seeds.
(iv) It is used in the bandage of wounds.
(v) It is used in the manufacture of cotton yarn.
Q.11 Write three food crops and two cash crops of Pakistan
Food Crops of Pakistan
The names of three food crops of Pakistan are following:
Cash Crops of Pakistan
The names of two cash crops of Pakistan are following:
Q.12 Write five main centres of Iron, SteeTand Engineering Industries in Pakistan.
Main Centres 01 Iron and Stee’ Engineering Industries
Five main centres of Iron and Steel Industries in Pakistan are following:
(ii) Pakistan Steel Mills
(iii) Heavy Mechanical Complex Taxila
(iv) Machine Tools Factory
(v) Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works
Q.13 Why is transport important for trade? N~ four means of transport in Pakistan.
Need of Transport Means
The need of the means of transport can be described as following: .
(i) Different things are transported from one place to another with the help of means of transport.
(ii) Economic progress depends upon the means of transport.
(iii) Internal and external trade both are developed due to means of transport in a country. .
(iv) Natural resources are properly utilized by the means of transport
(v) The transportation of labour is possible with the help of means of transport.
Means Of Transport In Pakistan
The means of transport commonly used in Pakistan are following:
(iii) Air Ways
(iv) Water Ways
Q.14 Describe at least five export items based on cottage industry.
Export “ems based on Collage Industries
Five export items based on cottage industries in Pakistan are following:
(i) Sports Goods
(v) Hosiery Products
Q.15 Name five centres of dairy farming in Pakistan.
The Centres of Dairy farming In Pakistan
Five centres of Dairy Farming in Pakistan are following:
Q.16 Write down the name of a mineral against each place which is found there,
Sui, Jhimpir., Dhulian, Abbotabad, Roskoh
SECTlON ‘C’ DETAIUD ANSWER QUESTION
Q.17 Draw the outline map of Pakistan and insert the following:
(i) Plateau of Balochistan, Makran Hills, River Indus
(ii) Kotri Barrage, Mangla Dam
(iii) Rice producing areas
Outline of the Map
For answer see Section ·C·, Q.17 in Solved Paper Commercial Geography>-2012
Q.18 Blaborate the climatic regions of Pakistan.
The Climatic Region of Pakistan
The study of long lasting conditions of weather in a particular area or country is called as the climate. The weather conditions related to the climate are included air pressure, temperature, humidity and rainfall
The Climate Of Pakistan:
Pakistan is situated in the north of Tropic of cancer. Pakistan is a subtropical country. It is situated in the Western” part of the monsoon region. Some of the areas in the North of Pakistan are warm and moist. Whereas the Mountainous areas have highland type climate. In the summer season, monsoon Winds cause to produce rainfall but these rainfall is unpredictable. If a common review is taken of the climate of Pakistan then it is called as Tropical type climate in which the season remains usually dry or sub dry. The summer monsoon brings maritime influences and rain, but there are annual variations in the strength of monsoon currents. In winter climatic conditions are quite different. In this season, the winds reverse and they prevail from North-West to South-West. In winter rainfall is quite sufficient and its usefulness for agriculture is further reduced by its nature. The average January temperature in the plains of Pakistan is 40C and maximum temperature of the same month is 24oC, whereas the minimum temperature hi the months of June and July is 300C and maximum temperature in the same months is “480C. The maximum temperature of Sibi and Jacobabad is about SOoC.Pakistan is divided into the following regions on the basis of its climate. _
(1) Sub-Tropical Continental Highland:
Pakistan’s Northern Mountain Ranges outer and Central Himalayas, North-Western Mountain Ranges Waziristan, Zhob and Loralai and the Mountain Ranges Balochistan Q.uetta, Sarawan, Central Makran and Jalawan. Here the winter is extremely cold, normally there is snowfall. Summer season is quite cool and in the spring and winter seasons, there is mostly fog and rainfall. In some areas of this region like an outer Himalayas, Muree and Hazara districts, “rainfall continuous throughout the year. Mosdy it rains at the end of summer season.
(2) Sub-Tropical Continental Plateau:
In this region most of the parts of Balochistan are included. Here the winter reason in intensive” and the temperature falls below the freezing point and there is also some rainfall in winter which cause to produce some grass. From May to “the mid September hot and dusty winds continuously below. Sibi and Jacobabad are located In this region. There are a few millimetres rainfall during the months of January and February. Extreme hot, dry and dusty winds are important characteristics of this region.
(3) Sub-Tropical Continental Lowland:
The Upper Indus Plain of Punjab province and the Lower Indus Plan of Sindh province are included in this region. Suinmer is very hot. The North of Punjab receives late summer monsoon rains. While the rest of Punjab receives less rainfall. Winter rainfall situations is same. In the Thal, Kachhi, Sibi and South Eastern plains are dry and a large area is desert. The Peshawar plain experiences thunderstorms and dust storms during summer ..
(4) Sub-Tropical Coastland:
This climate region includes the coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan provinces. The temperature is moderate. The difference between maximum and minimum temperature or range of temperature is less. There is inflow of Sea breeze throughout the summer and the humidity is. high. Annual average temperature is 320C and rainfall is 180 millimetres. May and June are the hottest months.
Although Pakistan is situated in the monsoon region of climate but being in extreme Western part of this region, does not possess its characteristics. Therefore, the climate of Pakistan is a rid, hot and continental type. There are extreme variations in the temperature. A major part of Pakistan lies at a great distance from the sea.
Q.19 Define Commercial Geography in the light of the points’ of views of different Geographers and write down the importance and advantages of its study.
Commercial Geography, Importance and Advantages
For answer see Section “C”, Q.19 in Solved Paper Commercial Geography – 2012
Q.20 What is meant by soil? Describe about’ the soils of different regions of Pakistan.
Soil The upper layer of the Earth which is called Earth Crust in which plants grow is called Soil. The components of soil are not packed properly. The upper layer of the earth is a collection of three major components in which solid particles, organic matter and wetness reincluded.
Kinds of Soil
Residual and Transparted both- types of soil are found in the different parts of Pakistan, the chemical changes are developed in the soil within time, the factors which bring changes are water, gas, decayed organic matter and germs. Some bacteria receive nitrogen from air and supply it to the plants thus the fertility of the soil is increased. The thickness of soil is from same inches to many feet. Solid particles, sand and elay are present in the soil. Iron, lime, copper, zinc, phosphorous and potash are also present in the soil organic matter consists of nitrogenous matter which is obtained from animals and plants.
Pakistan has been divided into following regions with respect to soil. The kinds of soil found in Pakistan are following .
(i) Boron Soil
This soil has dark brown colour and it is found in Himalayas Mountains, Hindukash Mountains and in the salt range. On mountainous slopes transported soil from local streams and rivers are found. This soil is fertile and cultivation is done on this soil.
(ii) Arid Red Soil
Arid red soil is found on the region of North West Mountains at the height of 3000 feet. Iron and silica are the components of this soil. This soil is found in Dir, Sawat and Chitral. It does not contain acidic elements but it can stay for long. The areas of this type of soil are Bannu, Zhob, Loralai and Quetta. While the regions of No Kundi and Dalbandin are dry and “barren.
(iii) Tropical Red Soil
This soil is found in those areas where annual rate of rainfall is 10 inches and show rainfall is observed during winter season. This type of soil is found in the coast of Makran, Lasbella and Qalat valley, MianwaIi and Kohat. In this soil grass grow immediately after rainfall but it becomes dry after rain. Organic and mineral components are found in this type of soil, If proper irrigation is made possible through canals then this type of soil proves beneficial for cultivation.
(iv) Gray Soil
This kind of soil is found in ]accobabad, Kutch plains, Sibi, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bugti and Musa Khel. Organic matters are found in less quantity in this soil, therefore the use of fertilizers is necessary for the cultivation. This so il contains sandy characteristics therefore it causes to produce water logging and salinity. This is a kind of dry soil.
(v) Loess Soil
This soil is located in Potwar Plateau and Mastony Valley, this soil has dark brown colour. It contains more organic matter but less nitrogenous components however this soil is fertile. Soil erosioin remains continue due to lack of vegetation and dry climate which decreases the fertlity of the soil. .’
(vi) Sandy Soil
This kind of soil located in Sindh, Kharan and Cholistan. It is known as Sandy Soil. This soil contains very less quantity of organic matter, however it contains the components of quartz. Water does not stay in this type of soil, however the cultivation is done by the use of canal irrigation and suitable fertilizers.
(vii) Alluvial Soil
The soil of upper and lower Indus Plains is called Alluvial Soil. This soil has been brought by the river Indus, j helum, Chenab and Ravi. It contains large quantity o,f lime however the organic matter is found in less quantity. The soil of upper Indus plain has been divided into Bhangar soil, Khadar Soil and Alluvial Soil.
(viii) Loamy Soil
The soil which is a mixture of sandy soil and clay is called Loamy soil. Loamy soil in Pakistan is located in upper Indus Plain, every kin d of crop can be cultivated on this soil. The soil of Potwar Plateau is also Loamy Soil where bush type trees and grass commonly produced.
Q.21 Write a detailed note on anyone of the following:
Agricultural Problems of Pakistan
Pakistan basically is an agricultural country and the agriculture has great importance in the economy of Pakistan. The share of agriculture in the total production is 30% and 50% population of the country is directly or indirectly associated the foreign exchange is obtained from agriculture. Agriculture is the particular profession of the people of Pakistan. More than 55% people are associated with the agricultural sector. Many cash crops as well as food crops are cultivated in pollution but the rate of production of agriculture is low, this is due to the various agricultural problems which are following:
(i) The rate of education in the villages of Pakistan is nearly outward. Lack of education creates many problems. Due to illiteracy, the cultivator not only remains uninformed through its own production but it also makes him deprived from the conceptual awareness.
(ii) The number of people who depend on agriculture is increasing but the process of bringing more area under cultivation is quite low. This has decreased in per capita area under cultivation.
(iii) The farmers in Pakistan are still using old methods of farming. Our farmers are hesitant to adopt mechanized cultivation due to conservative ideas or due to lack of financial resources.
(iv) Water logging and salinity are also the problems of the agriculture. Large canal areas of the province of Sindh and Punjab have been reduced useless due to water logging and salinity.
(v) As a result of fragmentaticrr’ of fertile land is divided into small land holdings “‘·filChrestricts large scale production and better use of the land including farming and the use of modem experiment.
(vi) ViHages and small towns are the certain areas of agriculrure in Pakistan. There are no “‘_nstructed roads if they are pr~t- btrr Tiave a very conJ}!ion in transportarion. Thus Pakistani farmers have to i’a
enormous difficulties in taking their pioduction to the market for lack of transport facilities.
(vii) Due to the unsuitable living conditions in the country side and non-availability of essential medical facilities, health of farmers and their familieis are affected. Their strength for more production is minimized.
(viii) In Pakistan, the marketing system of agricultural products is very low and deffective, due to this the farmer does not receive the actual cost of his production. The bookers and agents try to create many problems for the farmers, hence the farmers lose their heart and they do not pay attention to “increase the yield.
(2) Woolen Textile Industry
Pakistan has also woolen textile industry but it is not as rich as cotton textile industry. The reason that wool in Pakistan is not of high quality. Most of the wool of Pakistan is used for carpet making. However major woolen textile centres are located at Karachi in Sindh, Lawrencepur, Rawalpindi, Q.uaidabad in Punjab. Harnai, Mastung in Baluchistan and Bannu and Nowshera in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, where woolen yam, blankets and woolen” clothes are manufactures. At present there are seventy woolen mills in country. Lawrencepur and Karachi woolen mills produce high quality of woolen cloth
(3) Methods of Cultivation and producing areas of Rice in Pakistan.
Rice is the second Important food crop of Pakistan. It is favourable food of common people after wheat in Pakistan. The cultivation of rice in Pakistan is extensive and large. After providing the needs of the country the”surplus rice is exported to other countries and valuable foreign exchange is obtained. Rice is a crop of summer season. The plant of rice belongs to the grass family. The climate and land of Pakistan are favourable for the cultivation of rice.
Methods of Cultivation Of Rice
The method of cultivation of rice are related to favourable geographical and physical conditions which are following.
Rice is a plant of hot dry climate. th:erefore 80°F to 90°F temperature remains favoUrable for the cultivation of rice. The
cultivation of rice is hot possible to coal climate because cold dry season remains favourable for the harvesting of rice.
Rice is plant of water, therefore water in large quantity is required for the cultivation and ~f-nce. The areas where rate of rainfall is mote than 40 inChes remain favourable for the culttvanon ef rice but the average rate of rainfallin the most regions of Pakistan is less than 20 inches annually which is not enough for the cultivation of rice, therefore the storage of water is compulsory with the help of canals and tube wells.
Alluvial fertile soil remains favorable for the cultivation of rice but the clay or loamy soil remains most favorable for the cultivation of rice which has no ability to hold water for long. The soil with acidic properties remains most favourable for the cultivation of rice.
Production, Distribution and trade of Rice
Rice is cultivated in many regions of Pakistan but the provinces of Sindh and the province of Punjab have prominent status in the production of rice. Rice is cultivated over 10% of Sialkot, Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Shikarpur, Kasur and Okara. After these Sargodha, Khushab, Toba-Tek Singh, Paisalabad, jang are other important regions. Besides these rice is cultivated in all canal irrigated areas of Punjab. 54% of the total production of rice is obtained from Punjab. After Punjab, the provice Sindh has prominent status in the production of rice. Basmati rice of Punjab is famous all over the world. In the province Sindh, rice is cultivated in the district of Larkana and Sukkur division. Besides these Nawabshah and Hyderabad are also famous regions where rice is cultivated. In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar, Dera Ismail Khan, Sawat, Karma Agency are the areas of the cultivation of rice. 90% rice in Balochistan is obtained from Naseerabad district. In Azad Kashmir rice is also cultivated on mountainous slopes with the irrigation of water from streams. The trade of rice. is
done on country level and rice is also exported to other countries. Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the countries of Middle East are the big importers of rice from Pakistan. Rice is also exported to South America and Brazil.