SECTION “A” MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (M.C.Qs)
Q.1 Choose the correct answer for each from the given options
(i) The location of Pakistan is suitable for the point of view of
(ii) The nearest sea port from Europe to South Asia is :
(iii) The city situated on the Pothohar Plateaus is
(iv) A very deep land. is duglor irrigation in the semi-mountainous areas for:
* Main holes (Gutters)
(v) The soil which is carried,by the air is:
(vi) The areas which lie between River Indus and Suleman Range are:
* Lahore and Gujrat
* Larkana and Sukkar
* Daira Ghazi Khan and Daira Ismail Khan
* Karachi and Hyderabad
(vii) The desert whkn lies to the
(viii) The temperature of tne countries nearest to the equator is:
* Very low
* Very high
* None of these
(ix) The things which are obtained from the forests for the medicine industries are:
* Paper pulps
* Fire woods
* None of these
(x) The supply of water at the time of cultivation of crops is called
* None of these
(xi) The hairs (fluff) of goats of Kaghan Valley are called:
* Silver fibre
* Golden fibre
* None of these
(xii) The problem of scarcity of wrtef is solved by the construction of:
* None of these
(xiii) Sugarcane is mostly grown in the areas where the annual average rain is:
* More than 100″
* Less than 10″
* More than 40″
* None of these
(xiv) The Manchar Lake is in:
(xv) The Barrage on the river Indus near Daira Ghazi Khan is :
* None of these
(xvi) The more populated area than other places is:
(xvii) The suitable means of transportation for heavy goods is:
(xviii) The sea port which has recently been extended In Balochistan is:
(xix) The city famous for making electrical fans is:
(xx) Ume stone is usC*d as a saw material for making:
* Plaster of Paris
* None of these
SECTION “B” SHORT QUESTION ANSWER
Q.2 Write five names of friend Muslim countries of Pakistan
Friend Muslim Countries Of Pakistan
The names of five friend Muslim countries of Pakistan are following.
(i) Saudi Arabia
Q.3 Write five steps taken by the Government of Pakistan for extension in the areas of forests
Extension Of Forests and Government
The steps taken by the government for the extension of forests can be described as following.
(i) The government has used uncultivated land for the extension of forests.
(ii) The government has made policies for the protection of existing forests in Pakistan.
(iii) The government has planted artificial forests at various places of Pakistan.
(iv) The government has established a Forestry department to look after the forests in Pakistan.
(v)The government has planted trees in the mountainous and canal regions in order to extend the area of Pakistan
Q.4 Write any five characteristics of population of Pakistan
The Characteristics Of the Population Of Pakistan
Five characteristics of the population of Pakistan arc following.
(i) The population of Pakistan is increasing at a net rate of more than 2% per annum. It is the highest population growth rate in the world.
(ii) The ratio of females in the population of Pakistan is higher than males, whereas hardly 15% of females are allowed to participate in economic activities.
(iii) Infant mortality as well as under five mortality rate are very high, showing inefficiency of medical facilities.
(iv) The adult literacy rate is very low, due to which healthy political atmosphere could not prevail so far.
(v) .Society is sharply divided into rival classes, the rich and poor. Hence there is a severe dislikeiless and conflict between the two classes
Q.5 Write names of federal and provincial capitals of Pakistan
Federal and Provincial Capitals 01 Pakistan
The names of Federal and Provincial Capitals of Pakistan are following.
(1) Federal Capital
(2) Provincial Capitals
(i) The province Sindh; Karachi
(ii) The province Punjab; Lahore
(iii) The province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; Peshawar
(iv) The province Baluchistan; Quetta
Q.6 Name any five districts of Balochistan.
Districts Of Balochistan
The names of five district of Baluchistan are following:
(i) District Naseerabad
(ii) District Wazirstan
(iii) District Quila Abdullah
(iv) District Pasin
Q.7 Write any five advantages of irrigation
Advantages Of Irrigation
Five advantages of irrigation are following.
(i) Due to irrigation, large scale agriculture is done and good crops are grown.
(ii) A large area of arid and desert land can be brought under cultivation by means of irrigation.
(iii) Irrigation system supply water for the cultivation of crops throughout the year
(iv) Irrigation is helpful for the supply of water on the natural slopes and high areas for cultivation.
(v) Irrigation is helpful in the construction of canals and dams which are the sources of storage of water.
Q.8 Write down the five places of Bela forests in Punjab
The Places Of Bela Forests In Punjab
The places in Punjab where Bela Forests are located are following.
Q.9 Name any five trees which are found in the forests of Pakistan.
The Trees Found In the Forests Of Pakistan
The names of five trees found the forests of Pakistan are following.
Q.10 Describe any five factors for the formation of soil on a particular place.
Factors for the Formation of Soli
Five factors which are responsible for the formation of soil on a particular place are following .
Topography is an important factor for the formation of soil. Thin layer of soil rests on the slopes while it becomes thick in hollow place.
Climate also plays its role in the formation of soil because wind, temperature and moisture conditions produce tleir effect on the structure of soil.
Water is a factor that plays an essential role in the formation of nature of soil. Without the presence of water chemical reaction do not take place.
(iv) Plant and Animals
Both plants and animals highly influence soil development. Plants maintain the fertility of soil whereas animals decompose organic matter and enhance soil fertility.
The formation of soil is a large and complex process, hence it takes a long period to be compared
Q.11 Name any five factors which effect the commercial activity
Factor Affecting Commercial Activities
Five factors which affect on the chemical activities are following.
(i) The Land Location
(iv) Rivers and Lakes
Q.12 Write down the names of five small dams of Pakistan.
Small Dams of Pakistan
The names of small dams of Pakistan are following
(i) Bolan Dam
(ii) Rawal Dam
(iii) Cheera Dam
(iv) Baran Dam
(v) Hab Dam
Q.13 Write any five names of Bydal Power Projects of
Hydel Protects of Pakistan
The names of five hydal projects of Pakistan are following.
(i) Tarbella Hydel Project
(ii) Mangla Hydel Project
(ill) Ghazi Brotha Hydel Project
(iv) Warsak Hydel Project
(v) Chashma Hydel Project
Q.14 Write any five ~a”ses of the development of Transportation system in Pakistan.
The Causes of the Development of Transport System In Pakistan
The causes of the development of transportation system in Pakistan are following.
(i) Means of Transportation are helpful in the expansion of market.
(ii) Due to the development of the means of transport new opportunities of employment are received.
(iii) The system of Means of Transportation provides help in the mobility of labour.
(iv) A balanced system of the means of transportation is helpful in the transportation of goods and services throughout the country.
(v) A developed system of the means of transport provides help in bringing economic growth and prosperity.
Q..15 Why are energy resources important for the industries? Name any four energy resources.
Importance of Energy Resources. for Industries
The importance of energy resources for industries can be described as following. .
(i). The energy resources are considered as the bacltbone of industries because they provide the needs of energy.
(ii) The energy resources help in operating various kinds of machine’s related to production in industries.
(iii) The energy resources help in mining, digging. and other construction process.
(iv) The energy resources increase the efficiency of work and production in Industries.
The names of four energy resources are following.
(2) Natural Gas
Q.16 Write names of five pleas where sugarcane is cultivated.
Places 01 the Cultivaion Of Sugarcane
Five places where sugarcane cultivated are following.
(i) Sargodha (Punjab)
(ii) Khairpur (Sindh)
(iii) Noshera Feroz (Sindh)
(iv) Mardan (KPK)
(v) Naseerabad (Baluchistan
SECTION ‘C’ DETAILED ANSWER QUESTION
Q:17 Draw the outline map of Pakistan and insert the following:
(i) Three Centres of Cotton Textile Industry
(ii) Bin Qasim, Gawadar
(iii) Bolan Pass, Sukkar
Outline of the Map of Pakisan
Q.18 Write down about the suitable geographical conditions, areas of cultivation, annual production and trade of
cotton or maize
Favorable Physical and Geographical Conditions for the Cultivation of Cotton:
Cotton is considered as an important cash crop of Pakistan. Favourable Physical and geographical conditions for the
cultivation of cotton are following
Cotton is a plant of temperate region but it can be grown in sub-tropical regions also. It requires high temperature at the time of cultivation 80° P to 100° P temperature remains better for its cultivation. At the time of picking 600p temperature remains sufficient.
Naturally 20 inches to 40 inches annual rainfall is required for the cultivation of cotton. In Pakistan, the average annual rate of rainfall in Pakistan is 20 inches in plain areas, therefore cotton is cultivated in Pakistan through artificial means of irrigation. Excess amount of water is harmful for cotton plant. Only three to four times water irrigation per day is sufficient for the growth of cotton.
The alluvial soil is more suitable for the growth of cotton. The soils having a mixture of Clayand sand give better results. In Pakistan, cotton is mostly cultivated in dry areas of Punjab and 1 Sindh provinces
Production, Distribution and Trade of Cotton in Pakistan:
In Pakistan, the cotton is mainly cultivated in the canal irrigates areas of the province Punjab and the province Sindh. In Punjab, cotton is cultivated near all divisions. The districts of Multan division Vehari, Ludharan, Khanewal, Multan and Sahival are on the top or the list Bahawalpur is on the second number. In Bahawalpur division, cotton is cultivated in the districts Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Bhawal Nagar, Deraghazi Khan ranks third in the production of cotton. Cotton is cultivated on large area in Muzaffargarh, Dera Ghazikhan and Rajanpur. In Faisalabad in Okara and in Sargodha division, cotton is produced in Sargodha. The province Punjab produces 80 percent cotton
The canal irrigated areas of the province Sindh have prominent status in the production of cotton. cotton is cultivate? in Hydrabad, Dadu and Badin districts in Hyderabad division. In Sukkar division, .coiton is cultivated in districts Sukkar, Khairpur, Ghotki, Nawabshah and Noshero Feroz. Cotton also cultivated in Tharparkar and Sanghar
In Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, cotton is cultivated in Bannu and in Dera Ismail Khan. In Balochistan, the cultivation-of cotton is limited in the canal irrigated areas. These areas are located in the North east of Balochistan. Cotton is an important cash crop of I Pakistan. Pakistan has a permanent status among the cotton . producing countries of the world. Cotton also plays very important role in the development of the economy of Pakistan.· Cotton is known as the silver fibre, it is also called as cash fibre of Pakistan 5% of the national production is obtained from cotton. Two types of cotton is grown in Pakistan, the first is known ‘as local cotton while the other is known as American cotton.
Favorable Physical and Geographical Conditions for the Cultivation of Maize
Favourable geographical conditions or factors for the cultivation of Maize are following
Maize is the crop of summer and the areas where the temperature is 60°F and below remains favourable for thr cultivation of Maize. Extreme cold is harmful for the culminatior of maize. Harvesting is done at SOOF to 9OOF
Average rate of rainfall is 20 inches annually remain: suitable for the cultivation of maize and the areas where rainfall i less than 20 inches, the cultivation is done ‘on the basis 0 artificial irrigation
Fertile soil is necessary for the cultivation of cotton especially the soil which contains vegetative components remain suitable for the cultivation of Maize. The soil of grass lands Loamy soil and Alluvial soil and black soil are considered suitabl for the cultivation of soil.
Production, Distribution and Trade of Maize I Pakistan
Maize is cultivated in the prov~n:ce Punjab and th North-West mountainous regions. The regions where rainfall : common are suitable for the cultivation of maize. Per aCI production of maize in Pakistan is less than the production i other countrfes. At pr/sent two crops of maize are bein cultivated in Pakistan
In Pakistan, maize is ,the third important cereal after whe and rice. Maize accounts fOr 4.8% of the total cropped area at. 3.5% of the value of agriculture. Nearly 97% of the tot production comes from the province Punjab and Khyber Pakhtt Khwa. Khyber Pakhtun Khwa ranks the first in this regard as accounts for 577 of the total area and with 30% of the total mai: prod.uction. Sindh and Baluchistan hardly produce only 37 maize
Q.19 How does Thermal Power Project generate electricity. Write about Thermal Power Houses of Pakistan in detail
Generation of Electricity from Thermal Power Project
Thermal power station uses heat of coal, mineral oil and natural gas and converts it into electricity. Thus electricity is generated at thermal power project through the heat obtained from coal, natural gas and mineral oil
Thermal Power Houses in Pakisan
In Pakistan, great attention was given for the production of thermal power. In June 1995, the production of electricity according to WAPDA was 12530 mega watts out of which 4568 mega watts generated from thermal power projects. A review of the thermal power houses in Pakistan is following
Shardha Thermal Power House
This thermal house has been established at Shardha near Lahore. It is gas turbine project which produces 85 mega watts thermal electricity.
(ii) Faisalabad Thermal Power House
There are three thermal power houses are working at . Faisalabad. One steam power station which- produces 132 mega watt electricity while the other two are gas turbine projects which produce 215 mega watts of thermal electricity.
(iii) . Hultan Thermal Power House
This thermal power house has been set up at Piran Ghaib near Multan. It is steam power project and produces 265 mega watts electricity.
(iv) Hyderabad Thermal Power House
Hyderabad Thermal Power House was established in 1971. It produces 43 mega watts of thermal electricity. M Guddu Thermal Power House This thermal house has been set up for the fulfillment of the requirement of electricity in upper Sindh. It consists of four units and total production of thermal electricity is 640 mega watts.
(vi) Sukkur Thermal Power House
This power house was set up in 1969. It produces 50 mega watts thermal electricity.
(vii) Kotri Thermal Power House
Kotri Thermal Pose House was established at Kotri. It is gas turbine power project and produces 144 mega watts of thermal electricity .
(viii) Pasni Thermal Power House
This thermal power house is located at Pasni near Makran Coast in Baluchistan. It produces 17 mega watts of thermal electricity.
(xi) Lakhra Thermal Power House
This, thermal power house has been established at Lakhra district in Sindh. It is coal turbine power house and generates 150 mega watts of electricity .
K-Electric is the institution of generating electricity. It supplies electricity to Karachi and Lasbela. K-Electric has set up many power houses operated through natural gas and mineral oil at various places in Karachi. The total production of thermal electricity form these units is 1,138 mega watts.
Q.20 Describe the geographical importance of the location of Pakistan in the Asia. Also write its administrative division.
The Geographical Importance of the location of pakistan
Pakistan enjoys a unique and important geographical importance and political population in the Continent Asia as well as.In.the world. The boundazies. of Pakistan are, connected to Republic China, India, Afghanistan and Iran. Pakistan has close trade relations with all neigbouring countries and these relations are further improving within time. Recently the arrangements for the trade have been established among Pakistan. Republic China and the Islamic State of Central Asia Kyrgyzstan through silk highway. The importance of the geographical location of Pakistan can be described as following.
(i) Pakistan has central position in the Islamic World. All the oil producing countries of Middle East are located near Pakistan and Pakistan has good relations with all countries especially with Iran and Turkey.
(ii) Pakistan is located at important sea route Karachi is an important sea port of Pakistan. Karachi sea port is a source , of commercial connections with many Asian and European countries due to its location on international sea route.
(iii) Pakistan has connections through railways and roads to Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan, India, China and the countries ‘ of Central Asia which give support in trade activities. The Karakoram highway links Pakistan to China and Pakistan also building a motorway from Gawadar seaport to Peshawar which helps in the trade of the countries of Central Asia from the land routes of Pakistan.
(iv) Karachi airport has also great importance, the aeroplanes of Europe and Africa pass through Pakistan when they are going to the Asian countries.
(v) Pakistan has also importance according to commercial of point view. The climate of Pakistan is moderate and the water in the oceans does to freeze in any region of Pakistan, hence the trades activities in Pakistan remain continue throughout a year.
Administrative Divisions Of Pakistan
In pakistan there is a Federal form of government and according to the constitution the powers are divided between the provinces and the centre. Federal government and Provincial government function according to the provisions of the constitution. The constitution of Pakistan is applicable of the following areas.
(a) The province of Balochistan, the province of N.W.F.P, the province of the Punjab and the province of Sindh.
(b) The Federal Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
(c) The Federal Capital area ofIslamabad.
(d) and to such areas states which are included in or ever accede to Pakistan.
The President is the head of the state. Each Federal Minister looks after one or more ministries and is responsible for the smooth functioning of it. There is a bi-cameral Parliament at the national level which legislates for the whole country. It consists of the National Assembly and the Senate. Besides there is a full fledged bureaucracy (Government functionaries) who implement the government policies. Each ministry is headed by a Secretary. There is a hierarchy of officers who work under him. Some of the important ministries are:
(1) Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(2) Ministry of Defence
(3) Ministry of Horne Affairs
(4) Ministry of Finance
(5) Ministry of Education
(6) Ministry of Law
(7) Ministry of Health
(8) Ministry of Industries
(9) Ministry of Agriculture
(10) Ministry of Communications
(11) Ministry of Social Welfare
Q.21 Write a detailed note on anyone of the following:
Mineral oil which is also called as Crude oil or Petroleum. Mineral oil in Pakistan is commonly found in concentric rocks. 47 oil and gas fields were rocks to discover oil and gas during 1998-1999 in different parts of the country. Out of them natural gas was divided form 12 fields and petroleum was discovered from 28 fields. The division of the production of mineral oil and petroleum is divided into two regions
(i) The Northern areas of Punjab in which Attock Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Chackwal are prominent here different areas like Ghore, Mayal, Dharnal, Bhangi, Sadkat, Toot, Rajpan, Dakhni, Dhudak and Adhi are the major producers of Petroleum.
(ii) In Southern areas, the districts of Badin, Hyderabad, Sanghar are included. The places where oil and gas fields are found are Thor, Central Lashari Boby, Sonu, Pasaki, Khas Kheli, Leghari, Dhabi Mazai, Bukhari, Tajedi, Halleputa, Matali Lyari, Hari, Bhatti, Ghungro and Northern Akri are included.
The Petroleum or Mineral Oil which is obtained from the province Sindh is brought to the oil refineries near Karachi with the help of tankers. In Badin at Khas Kheli, the petroleum is, obtained in large quantity. After this the petroleum is obtained from Leghari. After this a large amount is also obtained form Dhabi
There is a great need of petroleum or petrol or mineral oil. It provides three times more energy than coal. Hundreds of useful components are obtained from the mineral oil in all refmeries.
Petrol is the light liquid solution of energy and it is used in vehicles and aero planes. It is also used to operate generators in thermal power stations. Petrol and diesel which is obtained form petroleum is used in motor cars, buses, trucks, aeroplanes, ships and other vehicles. Kerosene oil is also as fuel at homes and industries
(ii) Causes Of Backwardness Of Industries
Industrially, Pakistan is not a strong country, the process of development of industry in Pakistan is very slow, therefore Pakistan has to spend a lot of foreign exchange on purchasing the commodities from foreign countries. The important Causes of the industrial backwardness of Pakistan are following. ‘the big cause of the industrial development in Pakistan is the Contrary policies of the government. It has become a common trend in Pakistan that every new government immediately rejects the policies of the grovernment and starts to make new policies, due to this the rate of
industrial development in Pakistan has become weak. ‘* A lot of capital is needed for the development of industries. Due to lack of capital, industries could not be developed so fast. Now in Pakistan efforts are beingmade to develop private capital and foreign capital in Pakistan so that the lack of capital could be recovered in Pakistan. ‘* Standard Teclmical and Vocational education is needed to develop the countries. The standard of technical and vocational education in Pakistan is very low which results the shortage of skillful, trained and expertise for the industries. But government has made many programmes for the development of technical and vocational education in Pakistan. ‘* The means of transport also needed highly developed for the development of industries. In Pakistan the means of transport which included contracted roads, railways, aeroplanes and national highways are not well developed,
therefore the industries in Pakistan are also fall in backwardness. Many steps are being taken by the government to develop the means of transport. ‘* It is necessary for the development of the industries in a country that all the energy resources are completely
developed and the availability of the energy ‘goes continuously. In Pakistan better management for providing the electricity could not be made till now. Due to improper and insufficient supply of electricity and other energy resources in Pakistan, different industries have to face many problems which result in the backwardness of industries.
(iii) Advantages and Importance Of Forests
The importance and advantages of forests can be described as following.
(1) The forests are helpful in adding beauty of different regions of Pakistan. The plantation of Natural trees products natural beautiful scenes.
(2) The forests help in making the temperature of the environment moderate, thus the climate becomes moderate and pleasant. Forests produce humidity in the climate, thus they are helpful in bringing rainfall.
(3) Forests provide production to human beings as well as crops against windstorms and cyclones. The speed of wind storms decrease when they pass through forests.
(4) Forests help in increasing the fertility of soil, the leaves of trees broken from trees and mix in the soil and thus make the soil fertile.
(5) The amount of water logging and salinity is decreased slowly due to the effects of forests, thus the fertility of soil is restored.
(6) The forests provide wood which is used as fuel. This wood is also used in other constructive purposes.
(7) The forests provide raw material to many industries. For example he raw material for the industries of paper, match, rubber etc is obtained form forests. The trees which grow in forests are a big source of raw material. .
(8) The trees which grow near canals and rivers are helpful in making the edges strong and provide protection against floods and soil erosion .