1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) Mrs. Oakentubb got the punishment she:
(ii) Russell argues that communism is the most modern and virulent form of western:
(iii) Einstein believes that every man should be respected as an individual and no man be:
(iv) Dr. Mallory looked like:
* Robert Browning
(v) The Seven Ages of Man is actually a:
(vi) An elegy is a poem of:
(vii) Marie Celeste was a/an:
(viii) After the fall of the Roman Empire, the leadership in power and culture passed to the:
(ix) Keats is of the view that there is an inhuman dearth of:
* lovely tales
* noble natures
* strange people
* sweet dreams
(x) The most dangerous and daring of the Michael’s six is:
* Rupert of Hentzau
(xi) In the novel “The Prisoner of Zenda” Jacob’s Ladder was actually a:
(xii) Sounding furrows means:
* noisy waves
* noiseless waves
* speedy waves
* high waves
(xiii) The thing that gave the gentleman courage to live was the Korean girl’s:
* friendly brown eyes
* pretty face
* long black plaits
(xiv) How well you talk, really I feel quite drowsy. It is just like being in church. The speaker is:
* The Miller.
* The Miller’s son
* The Millers wife
(xv) Edith Taylor was the name of James Thurber’s:
(xvi) The book past and present has been written by:
(xvii) According to Bertrand Russell, Europe was sunk in:
(xviii) The fairest thing we can experience is the:
(xix) Mrs. Jones works at the house of:
* Mr. Snow
* Mr. Marlow
* Mr. Barthwick
* Mr. Roper
(xx) Marshal Strakenez was the:
* chief of Ruritanian Police
SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
NOTE: Answer 10 questions from this section.
2.(i) What were the characteristics that made Black Michael an outright villain?
Black Michael is the villain of the Novel, who wants to get the throne at any cost. He makes -disturbances at every
step of the king. He is a man of mean and selfish nature. He makes several plots to kill the acting king, at Summer House, at the palace of Princess Flavia and at many other places. He goes to the extent of offering bribe to Rassendyll to leave the country.
(ii) Describe the efforts -taken by Colonel Sapt to save the Ruritanian throne.
Rudolf Elphberg was a carefree play-boy. He was alcohol and ease loving person. Black Michael, the half bother of Rudolf Elphberg who wanted to ascend to the throne of Ruritania, was weir aware of his weakness. He sent a bottle of rare old wine as the treat of the occasion (an informal dinner, one day before the coronation day), Rudolf Elphberg emptied the bottle quickly and soon got insensible. The next day, Elphberg was found unconscious. Col. Sept understood the conspiracy of Black Michael that he wanted to seize the throne of Ruritania. Using his wisdom he persuaded Rassendyll to impersonate the king and attend the coronation in place of him.
(iii) What does Fritz von Tarlenheim mean by saying “Heaven does not always make the right men kings!”?
Rudolf Rassendyll was the hero in the novel. He was a young man who possessed the famous Elphberg’s features. Rudolf Rassendyll had a sympathy to the king Rudolf Elphberg, he came to know that Black Michael was a wicked person because he not only wanted to seize the throne but also wanted to marry Princess Flavia. He agreed to disguise himself as the King Rudolf Elphberg and want to the coronation. He carried out his duties as the King majestically and tactfully without revealing his true identity. After the coronation, he made his efforts to release the real king from the prison of Black Michael. He not only saved the real king but also proved himself far more effective than the real king of Rudolf Elphberg. He was not only brave but also a man of honour, therefore the meaning of Fritz Von Tarlenheim means that sometimes the nature does not select right men as the King just as Rudolf Rassendyll was the better for Ruritania than Rudolf Elphberg.
(iv) What things of beauty did Keats find most inspiring?
The sun, the moon and trees which provide shady boon, daffodils (flowers) with the green world they grow in, the flowing cool clear rills, the mid-forest brake with sprinkling of musk-rose blooms, the splendor of the mighty dead kings and the lovely stories are most inspiring things of beauty that Keats mentioned in the poem..
(v) What was the plan behind arranging ball? By who was it proposed?
A large formal occasion at which people dance is called “Ball”. Colonel Sapt and Fritz arranged a ball for the king and Princess Flavia. It ‘was a part of large format dance. A large number of people came to it. Rudolf Rassendyll played his part as the king very cleverly. He danced with Princess Flavia as the king and the people become very pleased to see Princess Flavia with king. The importance of the “Ball” in the novel that it makes Rassendyll’s character very strong as the king of Ruritania. He feels after his meeting with Princess Flavia at the ball that he is going to fall in love with Princess Flavia with his whole heart.
(vi) How did Ulysses inspire his mariners to accompany him to the new adventures?
All the sailors with Ulysses have grown old, yet they have a fearless and ambitious spirit. Ulysses inspires his old sailors to do some notable. work before inevitable death. He addresses them in impassioned eloquence and infuses into them a new fresh and young spirit C’f bravery and chivalry for thwarting all the difficulties back in order to discover new world. Ulysses says to his sailors “to strive, to seek, to find and not to yield”.
(vii) What is real freedom according to Liaquat Ali Khan?
Liaquat Ali Khan explains the’ meaning of freedom. In olden times freedom meant freedom only from foreign domination. He says that freedom means freedom only from foreign domination, is an outworn idea. The modern concept of freedom totally differs from the old concept of freedom He emphasized that it is not only government that should be free but the people should also be free.
That freedom means freedom only from foreign domination, is an outworn idea. It- is not merely the government that should be free but the people themselves who should be free; and no Freedom has any real value for the common man or woman unless it also means freedom from want, freedom from disease, freedom from ignorance.
(viii) What is Einstein’s attitude towards war?
Einstein believes that wars would have ended long ago, had the sound sense of nations, not been corrupted by the war mongers (dealers) by commercial or political interests. The author blames the different schools of thought & the press, for the spread of war.
(ix) Highlight at least 3 qualities of the ‘Man of Life Upright’.
The main features of upright men are that he is honorable and trustworthy. His heart is free from all kinds of guilt. He is not vain or proud. He lives a simple life. He does not desire wealth or property. His wealth is his good deeds. The poet compares the world to an inn. The upright man knows that his stay in the mortal world is temporary. This adhoc living resembles a holy visit which is called a age. The consciousness of temporary life keeps man always off the track from misdeeds & vices. He is respected in this world, while he will be rewarded by God, in the world hereafter.
(x) Describe the last stage of life as described by William Shakespeare.
The poet calls the last stage of man’s life as “second childishness” because of his semblance to the first stage. In this stage man becomes dependent upon others for his every need; he often falls sick and needs to be taken care of. He has no teeth and no taste. His eye-sight that had started weakening in the sixth stage becomes terrible weak, and he is unable to see what goes on in the world around him; he is unable to understand the common happenings of everyday life. He becomes forgetful; His being has no significance for anyone and is often forgotten in the everyday activities of life. He, who had moved the earth and heaven in his youth, quality slips into oblivion.
(xi) Explain the following words of Ulysses:
Made weak by time and fate but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find and not to yield.
In his address to the mariners, Ulysses reminds them how they bravely fought against their enemies in the past and never faltered. Their hearts are of the same quality and they share the spirit of bravery and heroism. Though time and fate has taken its toll but it has not succeeded in affecting their spirit. Their spirits are still young and they can still do “some work of noble note” Old age does not mean an end to struggle: only death can put a stop to ones efforts. So as long as they are alive they must strive and fight against the odds and not give in to the enemy.
(xii) Why did Madam de Mauban turn against Black Michael?
Lady Mauban betrays Michael, for her own personal interest. She was in love with him and wanted to marry him. But when she learns that Michael was not sincere to her and wanted to marry Princess Flavia, she betrays him, only to keep him for herself.
She is extremely ambitious and jealous by nature. She was dreaming that by marrying Michael she would become Queen of Ruritania. But when she comes to know that Michael was simply using her as a tool, to carry out his own evil designs, she betrays him. Michael was using lady Mauban, as he hoped to bring Rassendyll under his control, with her help So lady Mauban simply change her attitude towards Michael. She does this to frustrate Michael’s designs. She knew that if Michael succeeded in becoming King of Ruritania that would have been the end of her dream. She is clever and therefore helps Rassendyll so that she may topple Michael’s applecart, which she does. So, she betrays him only to keep Michael to herself.
(xiii) Why did the gentleman kill Mrs. Oakentubb?
The real motive of man for murdering Mrs. Oakentubb was to take revenge. In his words it is not only revenge but to execute justice. Mrs. Oakentubb, a wicked woman had crushed the wife and the daughter of the gentleman in a so called motor accident due to her ruthless driving. She used her influence and money in the court of law and was awarded a slight punishment. The man wanted to murder her to take revenge and execute justice.
(xiv) Use any five of the following idioms in sentences:
to catch at a straw; to cry over spilt milk; to get ride of; to bury the hatchet; with flying colours; a bone of contention; in black and white; by leaps and bounds.
(i) to catch at a straw:
The doctor tried to catch at a straw with his new treatment on a dying patient.
(ii) to cry over spilt milk:
He is always crying over spilled milk.
(iii) to get ride of:
You can get rid of malaria by spraying DDT.
(iv) to bury the hatchet:
It is always better not to take revenge and burry the hatchet with pleasure and honor.
(v) with flying colours:
Maryam came off with flying colours in her final M.A. examination.
(vi) a bone of contention:
The question of a fence between the houses has become quite a bone of contention.
(vii) in black and white:
I want all the records in black and white.
(viii) by leaps and bounds:
When Mustafa Kamal was city Nazim of Karachi city, had made progress by leaps and bounds.
(xv) Change the Narration:
‘My boy’, said my uncle, ‘be quite and listen to me. It is not like good boys to interrupt when their elders are speaking. Don’t you think, you had better give tongue a rest, Learn manners’?
My uncle addressed me as a boy and advised me to be quite and listened to him. It was not like good boys to interrupt when their elders wee speaking. Did not I thought, I had better to give tongue a rest you should learn manners.
SECTION C (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTION)
NOTE: Answer all questions from this section.
3. Write an essay on any One of the following:
(i) Poverty Breeds Crimes:
Poverty means a condition of a person with insufficient resources. Although it is true that all criminals are not poor
and the poor are not all criminals, it is the likelihood of people living in poverty to commit crimes than brings up the correlation.
After half a century has passed, our country is still standing behind. Discussing the causes of poverty in Pakistan, the most-important one is the increasing population. The population explosion is the main hurdle in our economic success. Our resources are far less than our consumption. Seventy percent of our population lives in villages. In spite of long planning, the agriculture has not fared well due to old methods of farming. The land reforms could not achieve the desired targets. Lack of education is another main factor, in our lagging behind economy. The Islamic philosophy of honest earning has been thrown into background. The result has been corruption in all walks of life. Terrorism is also being a great hurdle in international trade that would have helped us a lot otherwise. Countries are frightened in dealing their business with our country because they’re never sure when they have to face a loss. In fact the formation of economic capital and development of nation depends on the quality of human capital. Modern education must be given priority. We will have to change our life style to prop the economic growth.
(ii) Inflation – its causes and solution:
Inflation is a situation where there is a sustained and abnormal increase in the general price level.
The main causes of inflation are:
(1) Demand pull inflation, caused by an increase in aggregate demand in this case, demand for all products rise, causing the demand curve to shift upwards, hence increasing the general price level.
(2) The second cause is cost-push inflation, that is, a rise in cost of production, such as, raw materials, causes prices to rise. Since cost of production has risen, producers pass this burden on consumers, by charging higher prices.
(3) Another cause is imported inflation. This is when a country is importing materials from another country, in which inflation is high in that country.
(4) Finally, according to monetarists, inflation is caused when the money supply in an economy increases. It is a
situation of too much money chasing too few goods, hence increasing the price of goods.
The possible solutions are:
(1) High monetary expansion: The supply of money is expanding quickly every year but the supply of goods & services is not increasing according to that rates. Due to this prices are rising.
(2) Increase in Wages: The rise in wages, pensions and .salaries have increased the purchasing power of the people. Wages and prices chase each other.
(3) Increase in population: The rate of population growth in Pakistan is more than 3%. Due to this, aggregate demand is increasing day by day.
(4) Deficit financing: Means printing of currency notes by the Government in order to cover the defect in the budged. It will create inflationary pressure.
(5) Hoarding: Businessmen hoard necessities of life for earning profits. So increase in hording, profiteering, increases the prices of the commodities.
(6) Foreign Remittances: The increased remittances by the people working outside the country, purchasing power of their families are increased day by day. So the demand is increased
(7) Natural Calamities: Due to floods, excessive rains and earthquakes the level of production is decreased increase in demand and hence, the prices of goods is increase.
(8) Consumption habits: The people in Pakistan are extravagant. The people want to achieve high standard of living. So there is a demonstration effect in Pakistan. As a result, the rise in prices of goods and services continues.
(9) Devaluation: Devaluation brings inflation due to rise are the prices of imports. The people know that after devaluation prices will rise and they begin to hold stocks. Price level goes up due to increase in the general demand.
(iii) The Qualities of a Good Citizen:
A good citizen is one who is a good person. There seems to be no scope for differentiating between the two. The first and foremost quality asked of a good citizen is patriotism. He is one who knows his rights and duties as a citizen. He has great respect for the tradition and culture of his country. He is a man of good habit and noble thinking. He promotes peace and harmony in society. He has respect for other’s faiths and beliefs and does nothing to offend others. He is cooperative, friendly, selfless and humble. He is always ready to help needy people and the possesses high qualities of friendship. He is an intelligent, wise and possesses qualities of both mind and heart. He loves to acquire more knowledge.
When he is on duty, he shows wonderful sense of responsibility. He always tries to prove himself to be a responsible citizen as well.
As a member of society, a good citizen has certain obligations illiteracy, poverty, superstition, disease and a host of other problems demand the attention of a good citizen. He has to think about these and their evils. He must give his best to the society.
An ignorant of a selfish man can never be a good citizen. If he is ignorant, he does not know which rights to defend and which duties to perform.
(iv) Facebook Mania:
Social networking has been a common use on the Internet in today’s generation. One of these popular social networking sites is Face book which has over millions of members connecting with friends every day. The popularity of Face bookers in Pakistan has been increasing so much that soon it will reach 43 billion members in 2012 (kompas.com on first February 2012). However, in society there are pro and contra viewpoints concerning using facebook in the daily life Based on this, issue we would explain more about the advantages and disadvantages that people might get from Face book so that you could decide whether or not you want to use Face book. We have two common advantages that we might get from Face book such as easy communication and effective advertisement while about the disadvantages we have decreasing the direct communication and wasting your time.
First of all, Face book has two major advantages. The first advantage of using Face book is that it eases our communication. For example when people want to communicate with their friends or family abroad, they no longer need to post mails which need a lot of time and money. Facebook provides several features such as chatting, personal messaging, and photo sharing which enable us to share information with other Face bookers easily. Just by clicking on the ‘post’ button in Face book, we can send pictures, videos, or simple sweet greetings for the people we love who are miles away from us. With the existence of Facebook, distance no longer becomes obstacle for our communication. Face book seems like constricting the globe. Another advantage of using Face bool<is that it becomes an efficient place to advertise our products. Efficient here are in the form of money, time and energy. For example, we can use Face book to advertise our products or events for free, while in the other media like newspaper, radio, or television, we have to pay a certain amount of money. Even, if We want to advertise our product in Jawa Post, we have to pay Rs.200.000 for only a two-line advertisement. Furthermore, We do not need much time to spread out our advertisements. We just need to sit in the front of the computer, upload the advertisement and share it via Face book by only clicking “share” button. In a few minutes, our product will spread all over the world and as a consequence, everyone will know and read our advertisement in their Face book accounts. Moreover, by using Face book, we should not do the conventional way of spreading the advertisement where we have to stand for a long time on the crowd. giving the advertisements to the consumers. Instead of doing that tiring way, we only need to sit, get connected to Face book and share the advertisements. Therefore, we definitely save a vast amount of energy.
Besides the advantages as described in the previous section, Facebook also has two common disadvantages. The first disadvantage of using Facebook is that it decreases the direct communication between yourselves and other people Communicating by using Face book, it means that you do not do face to face communication with your friends and only using computers to do it. Indeed by using Face book, you can exchange information and make conversation with your friends. However, you will lose one essential aspect of communication which is non-verbal communication. It includes eye contact, gesture, voice tone and touching. Actually, non-verbal communication is so important because it will help to convey the emotion and feelings strongly. To illustrate, when your friend is sad and crying, you can calm her/him down by patting her/his shoulder. If you use Facebook to communicate, you cannot show your support and sympathy straightforwardly. The second disadvantage of using Face book is that it wastes our time. Once people connect with their friends on Face book, they will tend to chat with them for hours and be curious to know what they are doing and feeling by looking at their friends’ constantly updated status. Moreover, Face book also provides many kinds of online games such as Poker and Cityville. Usually people prefer to play online games on Face book while waiting for the newest status of friends. When they get new notifications, they will minimize the game, look at the new notification, and then continue the game. It happens on and on. As the result, people will not realize that they have spent many hours only for connecting to face book. Actually, with the amount of time, you can do your duty or other things which are useful such as doing homework or reading books.
To sum up, there are two points of view about Facebook: agree and disagree. The people who agree with the using of Face book find it useful to ease communication and provide effective advertisements. However, people who disagree with the using of Face book think that it is decreasing direct communication and wasting time activity. Therefore, it is your choice to agree or disagree of the using of Facebook.
4. Highlight some of the sterling qualities of Rudolf Rassendyll as a Victorian hero.
Novelists have always’ given much attention to build up the character of the hero. Prisoner of Zenda is also an example of this technique. Rassendyll stands as the hero of this novel. We judge his character from the following few points.
He belongs to a noble family of England. Throughout his role, he maintains family honor. Dignity speaks itself in his character.
He is well educated Young man of 29. He has got his higher education in a German University. He knows German, English and French and can also speak Spanish and Latin. As such, we can regard him a well learned man.
It is his personality which makes him real hero. We see almost all the qualities of head and heart in him. Physically he is handsome, tall and strong. We find him a good rider and gallant soldier. His fair complexion Le. red hair, straight nose and blue eyes attract all. Equally he is a deep thinker and a good planner.
He has a simple but romantic nature. It is his selfless nature which induces him to save Ruritania. Flavia falls in love with him and he pays in the same coins. We find him sincere and true in lover. His sacrifice in love puts him in high esteem.
He is a man of strong will power, Black Michael offers him bribe but his honesty does not allow him to accept it. In short, Rassendyll is the character which rules over the novel and attracts the readers to read the novel till its last page.
OR ‘Black Michael was a clever conspirator but a coward’. Discuss.
Black was a clever and genius criminal. When he sees that Rassendyll has impersonated the King of Ruritania, he does not ·make it known to the people and has kept them in dark. Moreover, he makes plot to get the throne with the help of his companions. As he always tries to delude his fellowmen, they betray him when he is expecting complete victory. He invites Rassendyll to the Summer House through a conspiracy, but fortunately Rassendyll survives. Black Michael is coward man. He wants to save his life at any cost. He does not come out to handle the situation at any time.
5. Read the following passage and answer the questions given below:
Men, who are always grumbling about their poverty, complaining of their difficulties and thinking of their lot in this world as mean and poor, will never get any happiness of achieve any success. Howsoever, miserable our life may be, if we face it bravely and courageously and try to make the best of it, we shall find that after all it is not so hard as we had thought of and we may have our moments of happiness and joy of success.
There is nothing mean or unclear until we make it by the wrong attitude we adopt towards it. Thus our attitude should be positive, realistic and pragmatic.
(i) What kind of men will never get happiness?
(ii) How should we face life?
(iii) What should be our attitude?
(iv) Give a title to the passage.
(i) Men, who are always grumbling about their poverty, complaining of their difficulties and thinking of their lot in this world as mean and poor, will never get any happiness of achieve any success.
(ii) We should life bravely and courageously. We should endure the ups and down and thick and thin of our life with courage and try to overcome them with our efforts.
(iii) Our attitude Should be positive, realistic and pragmatic.
(iv) The title of the passage is “Real Happiness”.