SECTION ‘A’ (MULTIPLE QUESTIONS ANSWER)
SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT QUESTIONS ANSWER)
2.i) Why does Bertrand Russell consider it useless to resist industrialization?
Bertrand Russell considers it useless to resist Industrialization because it is inevitable. The author says that it is useless to talk against industrialization it as the source of power.
ii) What is Einstein:s attitude to property, outward success and luxury?
According to Einstein comfort and ease are not good ideals. He has always been inspired by the ideals of truth, goodness and beauty. He thinks that property, outward success and luxury are the ordinary objects of life.
iii) How did Samson take revenge upon his enemies?
Samson was tied to two pillars. Samson applied his force to the pillars, which trembled just as mountains do against the fury of winds and water. He shook them in opposite directions, till the roof came \ down with a thundering noise. Thus, all those lords and captains who sat under the roof were crushed to death. Of course Samson too died, but in this way he took a revenge on his enemies. The two heavy pillars who gave support to the whole building were shaken with great force by Samson and after their motion of to and fro they came down. Samson succeeded in achieving his goal Le to crush his enemies for it he use his full strength to pull the pillars down on the heads of his enemies. He shook the pillars again and again till they came down.
iv) Change the following into indirect narration:
(a) . He said to me, ‘I am going to Islamabad by air tomorrow’.
He informed me that he was going to Islamabad by air the next day.
(b) He said to the student, ‘Clean the blackboard’.
He ordered the student to clean the blackboard.
(c) Raheel said, ‘I have completed my work.’
Raheel informed that he had completed his work.
(d) They said, ‘Alas! We cannot attend the party.’
They exclaimed with sorrow that they could not attend the party.
(e) The teacher said, ‘The earth is round.’
The teacher said that the earth is round.
v) Use any five of the following idiomatic phrases in your sentences:
In camera: The opponents had an in camera session after which they hit truce. .
a far cry: Playing in a comedy is a far cry from playing a criminal in a mystery.
in black and white: Nadia had abandoned all hope of getting her contract down in black and white.
to break the ice: We played a couple of party games to break the ice after a while everyone started talking to each other.
at sixes and sevens: Mrs. Smith is at sixes and sevens since the death of her husband. .
to call off: The staff meeting was called off because the Chairman had another urgent matter to deal with.
all in all: All in all my summer vacations were good as I travelled a lot during them
an apple of discord: The right to host the next Olympic games has become an apple of discord between the two countries.
a burning question: Real estate taxes are always a buming question for the town leaders.
vi) Why does the trial of jones seem to be unfair in ‘Act In of the Silver Box’?
It is clear from the proceedings, behaviour of the court and the magistrate that he did not give Jones a fair trail. He has done no more than Mr. Jones has done, he is not punished for his power and Jones is punished. The magistrate said that he was not concerned about what was taken or not taken. He wanted to know why he resisted the police in the execution of their duty. It is evident that the judge is not willing to listen against the rich family which is not justified. ,
vii) What is the main idea discussed in the poem ‘Music When Soft Voices Die’?
The poem tells us that even after we stop lis,tening to good music, this soft music lingers on in our memories for a long time to come. Another example that he gives is of flowers like violets, telling us that even after flowers die away, their sweet scent lingers with us for a long time to come.
Giving yet another example, the poet tells us that even after a rose withers away its petals, are scattered on the bed of loved ones in order to make the room sweet scented. In the last, he empresses the central idea asserting that everything and every one that we love can never be forgotten by us even though they are not with us any longer.
Therefore, the poet declares that even though his beloved is no longer with him, yet her loving though shall live in his memory and even though the poet will not be able to actively show the love for her, yet in a silent, quite manner, he shall continue to love her as long as he lives.
viii) Describe the incident that inspired Wordsworth to write ‘The Solitary Reaper’.
The poet was roaming in the Scottish hills when he saw a highland girl in the valley. She was reaping and singing by herself in a field. He says that anyone passing by should either stop here, or “gently pass” so as not to disturb her. As she “cuts and binds the grain” she “sings a melancholy strain,” and the valley overflows with the beautiful, sad sound. The poet says that the sound is more welcome than any chant of the nightingale to weary travelers in the desert, and that the cuckoo-bird in spring never sang with a voice so thrilling.
Impatient, the poet asks, “Will no one tell me what she sings?” He speculates that her song might be about “old, unhappy, far-off things, I And battles long ago,” or that it might be humbler, a simple song about “matter of today.” Whatever she sings about, he says, he listened “motionless and still,” and as he traveled up the hill, he carried her song with him in his heart long after he could no longer hear it.
This is the incident that inspired Wordsworth to write ‘The Solitary Reaper’.
ix) Explain the following lines:
Heaven from all creatures hides the book of fate,
All but the page prescribed, their present state.
These lines have been taken from the ‘poem ‘Ans Essay on Man’ln the opening lines Alexender Pope gives the concept of destiny and what works behind all creatures who are divided into three groups animal, men & spirits. Every creature has no knowledge of future except present time. The creator has hidden from all creatures their fate in such a way that man knows the future of animals while spirits know the future of Man but no one knows of his fate, he would not be prepared to live here on earth to face his suffering which ere predestined.
x) What is a ‘Ball’? State its importance in the novel.
A ball is-where couples are invited and a ri’ew marriage proposal is generally announced. Couples dance together in a ball and display their love and commitment for each other. In Prisoner of Zenda the new King arranged a ball in order to satisfy the public that he loved Princess Flavia and will marry her shortly.
xi) Why was Rassendyll forced to impersonate the king of Ruritania?
The events in the novel ‘The Prisoner of Zenda’ take a dramatic turn when Rassendyll’s desire to see King Rudolfs coronation becomes a matter of political necessity for the Ruritanians to disguise him as the King of Ruritania. As a matter of fact, Rudolf Elphberg is unconscious on the day of his coronation because of the drugged wine he drank the previous night. The so-caJled rare, old wine in a wicker-covered bottle was a gift from Duke Michael. Realizing the seriousness of the situation, Colonel Sapt persuades Rassendyll to impersonate as the King of Ruritania. He gives various reasons to convince him: firstly, Rudolf Rassendyll and Rudolf Elphberq are almost identical in appearance; secondly, the throne is lost if the king does not appear for the coronation because Duke Michael will seize the throne for himself; thirdly, they cannot give the excuse of his illness because people know his ‘illness’ too well; and lastly, Rassendyll has to be the King only for one day.
xii) How does Hugh, the Miller deceive Little Hans in the lesson ‘The Devoted Friend’?
Hans and the Miller are the central characters in the story ‘The Devoted Friend’, written by Oscar Wilde. The Miller’s claim to be Hans’s best friend cannot stand examination. He said “Real friends should have everything in common”, but he never shared anything with poor Hans when he was starving in winter. He said “when people are in trouble, they should be left alone”, but when the Miller’s son fell off the ladder, he came to poor Hans for help. When the Miller promised that he would give little Hans his old wheelbarrow, the Miller said “generosity is the essence of friendship”. However, he never carried out his promise. Rather, he expected great generosity from poor Hans. In retum of the worthless wheelbarrow, the Miller first took a big plank of wood, then flowers, then sent him on long errands, then got him to work at his mill, and finally sent him to bring the doctor for his son. Even at Hans’s funeral, the Miller demanded the best place on account of being his best friend.
xiii) Our administrative machinery had to be built frOID scratch. What does Liaquat AU Khan mean by th.ese words?
Liaquat Ali Khan means that when Pakistan was created there was no proper govemment, no money and no security. So much so that we even lacked administrative machinery and so, it can be said that Pakistan had to be built from scratch.
xiv) What things of beauty did Keats find most inspiring in the poem “Lines from Endymion ‘?
Keats refers to various shapes of beauty, which please us and make us forget our worries. He says that the grand deaths and the splendid destinies we have imagined for the brave heroes of history are also beautiful because they too inspire us to deeds of nobility and fortitude. Similarly;works of art and literature created over centuries are also a thing of beauty. All lovely trails which we have read or heard and beautiful objects of art are permanent source of endless joy. These tales give us great pleasure and we forget the depressions and agonies of life. Thus all these visions of beauty are like an endless fountain which gives an immortal drink to our thirsty souls.
xv) What were the steps taken by R~dolf RassendyU for the lib ration of Rudolf Elphberg.
The integral character ot Rassendyll holds the attention of the readers throughout the exciting events of the novel. Rassendyll possesses a prime personality and is linked with the main incidents of the novel in one way or the other. He starts of by”impersonating the King in the palace, and then taking part in the coronation, later he went to the summerhouse endangering his life to meet Micheal to save the real king. Once when the King has been rescued Rassendyll makes a silent exit leaving his love and the country he could have ruled behind.
SECTION ‘C’ (DETAILED QUESTIONS ANSWER)
3. Write an essay on any One of the following:
Merits and Demerits of Science
Modern science has evolved over a long period, and has now
reached the peak of success. It has worked wonders in our life, but it
cannot be said that it is aHogethera blessinq. When we look at the
other side of the picture,we are filled with a sense of horror. The fear of
war and destruction hangs over our heads all the time. In order to
understandthe creative and destructive aspects of modem science, we
stand in need of an analysis that will help us differentiate between the
good and the bad
As we look over the brighter side of the achievements of science,
we come to realize that there is hardly any sphere of life that has not
been enhanced by the creative abilities of man. In the field of medical
science, knowledge and research has gone to such an extent that
almost all the ailments have found a cure. The threatening clouds of
death no longer haunt the patients who were otherwise filled with
despair. Epidemics have been wiped out, nutritional standards have
been improved, drug therapy has been recognized and hygienic
conditions are being created so that the new generation may enjoy a
longer and better life.
In the realm of communication, modern scientific inventions have
helped a lot. The far-flung corners of the world have been linked
together with a wide spread air network. Distances have lost their
meaning and thousands of miles can be covered within hours.
Travelling today is not-onlyswift, but also full of pleasure and luxury
Modem science has opened new vistas of entertainment. All the
new electronic gadgets have filled our lives with recreational variety.
From the small pocket sized transistor to the big screen television and
VCR, we are provided er1tertainment at home and we owe it all to
science. Readers are provided illustrated, colourful.books due to the
blessing of modem science in the form of latest’printing machines and
techniques. Such means of entertainment have brought about a
change in our habits and hobbies.
The advantages of science are not restricted to the urban
population. In the fields of agriculture, forestry and fishery, science has
provided the rural population with the latest implements’and know-how.
The new methods ‘of agriculture have boosted the productionof farms
and fields. With the use of different fjesticides, the crops remain
undamaged and the tillers of the soil get better return of the labour.
This increase in output not only improves the condition of the toilin masses, but also brings about a healthy change in the economy of the
country. This keeps on moving the nations on the path of progress and
As we cast our eyes on the other side of the picture, we cannot
help coming to the conclusion that science is also the monster of death
. and destruction. Man is selfish and pugnacious by nature. To fulfil his
jingoist designs, he stands In need of the most destructive weapons,
which could bring about the annihilation of hls rivals. Man has gained
knowledge in the field of science, but due to lack of wisdom, he is
misusing this knowledge. All big nations are thinking of fulfilling the
dream of becoming the super power. The wars of today are not limited
to the battlefield. It brings about epidemic killing of the civilian •
population. The knowledge of this domain has added immeasurable
danger to war. All the leading powers posses fatal weapons, and 1t
seems that the weaker countries are their mercy. These big nations talk
a lot about reduction in arms and they hold disarmament conferences.
However, their pr-acticeis quite contrary to their preaching.
Science, no doubt provides, new ways of entertainment, but these.
very means of amusement are bringing a sharp decline in the moral
values of the young generation and equally sharp increase in the
number of crimes. The TV and’ video provide entertainment but they
quite often become the channels of vulgarity and obscenity. Moreover,
new ways of crime are.shown to younger people, who adopt the path of
getting easy money.
Looking eft the two aspects of modem science, we conclude that
science by itself is neither good nor bad. It is the will and intentions of
man, which makes him, put it to constructive use or take it to the path
Significance of English language
In today’s global world, the importance of English can not be
denied and ignored since English is the most common language
spoken everywhere. With the help of developing technology, English
has been playing a major role fn many sectors includinq medicine,
engineering, and education, which, in my opinion, is the most important
arena where English is needed. Particularly, as a deeeloplnq country,
Pakistan needs to make use of this world-wide spoken language in
order to prove its international power. This can merely be based on the
efficiency of tertiary education. Consequently, English should be the
medium of instruction at universities in Pakistan for the following three
reasqns: finding a high-quality job, communicating with the international
world, and accessing scientific sources in the student’s major field.
The first reason for why English shquld be the medium of
instruction at universities in Pakistan is that it helps students find a high
quality jobs for students to find. In business life, the most important
common language is obviously English. In addition to this, especially,
high-quality jobs need good understanding ability and speaking in English. Therefore, companies can easily open out to other countries,
and these companies generally employ graduates whose English is
fluent and orderly. For example, the student who is graduated from a
university which takes English as a major language will find a better or
high-quality job than other students who don’t know English
adequately. In other words, the student who knows English is able to
be more efficient in his job because he can use the information from
foreign sources and web sites. He can prepare his assignments and
tasks with the help of this information. Therefore, undoubtedly, his
managers would like his effort or prepared projects. In addition, many
high-quality jobs are related with international. communication and
world-wide data sharing. University graduates who are in a international
company and business are needed to communicate with foreign
workers. For instance, if their managers want them to share the
company’s data, they are expected to know English. Moreover, they will
even have to go business trip for their company. Absolutely, all of’these
depend on speaking English; as a result, new graduates have to know
English in order to get a high-quality job, and the others, who don’t
know English, may have lack of communication and be paid less
The second and the most important reason, for English to be the
medium of instruction in the Pakistan higher education system is that it
enables students to communicate with the international world. In these
days, in my opinion, the most important thing for both university
students and graduates is to follow the development in technology. For
this reason, they have to learn common language. Certainly, they
should not lose their interest on communicating with the world.
However, some of the university students can’t obtain English
education in their university. Unfortunately, these people may lose their
communication with worldwide subjects and topics. In short, they will
not be able to communicate with foreign people. To prevent these
people from lacking of speaking English, universities’ administration will
provide English education to them. In addition, university students can
use some specific hardware and software of computers with their
English to communicate others. For example, the Internet, which, in my
opinion, is the largest source in the world, based on English knowledge
and information. Also, most· of the soft wares such as “Windows”,
“Microsoft Office”, “Internet Explorer” are firstly written in English, and
these programs are the basic vital things for communication over
computer. That is to say, even in a little research about something, they
needthese programs and the Internet to find necessary sources and
The last reason for favoring English is that it facilitates accessing
information. All of the students have to do some projects or home
works which are related with their field during the university education.
In these projects or homework, they have to find some information which is connected with their subject. They find sources from English
web sites and books, but they have to replace these data to their
projects. During these processes, if they know English, they will not
come across with any difficulty, but if they don’t know, even they may
not use these data. As a result, the student who knows English will be
more successful at his/her project. For this reason, to obstruct possible
inequity between students, management of universities should accept
English as a second language in order to provide accessing information
to the students. In short, university students need to know English to
For many years, English has been the common world-wide
language, and it will be in the future. For this reason, if you want to
follow trends, new gadgets and technology, modernization of the
developing world, you have to know English whatever age you are in.
Destructions Caused by Terrorism
Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons
or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian
population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social
objectives. Terrorism is not just something that developed during the
1900s. Throughout modern history, terrorism has been happening
around the world
It can be also said that terrorism is a psychological state, which
combines the physical and mental efforts to create dread and insecurity
in the society on the whole
God has created this beautiful world with immense love and
kindness. He has given multiple colors to this world. Human beings did
not understand the motives of the creation of this world. Destruction
and turmoil have become the fashion of the day. Terrorism is the
gravest foam of destruction and disaster. It damages the internal as
well as external infrastructure of every country. Insecurity and mental
pressure have created a sense of self deprivation among masses
At present, Pakistan has been facing the gigantic problem of terrorism.
It has become the fashion of the day. It is regarded as headache for
federation and a nightmare for public. It has colossal roots which
spread inside the internal as well as external boundaries of Pakistan.
Although it is global issue yet Pakistan has to bear the brunt of it
Pakistan’s involvement in war against terrorism has further fuel
t e fire. We are facing war like situation in Pakistan .This daunting
situation is caused due to several factors like Political instability, social
injustice, inequality, self-deprivation, religious intolerance, externai
hands and international conspiracies
The term terrorism has been used millions of times around the
whole globe. It is pertinent to know about the meaning of this soul
trambllnq word. Terrorism is a use of force to create harassment. It is
a so used to create an environment of fe and violence. Basically
there is no Specific definition of the term terrorism. International law
has no definition to define or elaborate this term. Use of Authority for
personal gains is also indicating towards terrorism
A handful of people who have their vicious interests to fulfill have
not only taken ‘the lives of millions of innocent lives but also defamed
the pious image of Islam. Terrorist’s acts like suicide bombings have
become norm of the day. On account of these attacks Pakistan is
suffering from huge loss ranging from civilian to economics. People
have become numerical figure blowing up in every minute.
Terrorists have not left any place vacant. They spread around the
whole country. Markets, shrines, mosques, hotels, gardens and
educational institutes all are now under the thumb of just one click of
terrorists. They blasted everything. They are responsible for the
Innocent lives of people. They hold special place in hell
Pakistan puts several efforts to curb the danger of terrorism.
Terrorism should only be controlled with mutual efforts. It is not a war of
one country but it is a war of whole world. Overall international
community should come forward to eliminate this gigantic threat.
Negotiations are now only the safe solution to curb this menace. We
don’t want more casualties whether in Pakistan, Afghanistan or USA.
Whole nation should come forward to defeat this threat. We should join
hands together and safe this globe from violence. Proper and effective
measures should be Iqid down by government. Pakistan is considered
as a land of purity. Purity can only be remained if we understand the
motto of extremists. Let’s pray Almighty Allah to shower his blessings
on Pakistan. Save this pious land from the selfish alms of terrorists.
Necessity of Tolerance
Due to globalization, people of different backgrounds, cultures
and religions are living together, and the world has become
multicultural and full of diversity, establishing tolerance and harmony
has become very crucial and important, and fostering mutual love and
affection has become vital:
Without tolerance and harmony the lasting peace of societies
cannot be maintained, and loyalty for each other cannot be established.
The word tolerance means the willingness to accept or to tolerate,
especially opinions or behaviour you may not agree wi h, or to behave
sensibly with those who are not like you. It means showinq respect for
the race, gender, opinions, religion and ideologies of 0 her people or
groups, and to admire the good qualities and good work of others. And
to express one’s point of view in a’ decent and respectful way while
respecting the sentiments of others.
Tolerance can be shown in many ways, on different occasions
and at different times. A person might fully disagree with others on any
issue, from religion to politics, while at the same time, onouring and
respecting those with different ideas and <winions and treating them
with full dignity and honour.
Tolerance is needed in all spheres of life, and on every level and
on every stage, because it plays a vital role to establish peace and
love, from the smallest unit up to the highest unit of society.
Tolerance does not mean that only one person or party shows
tolerance and the others do not. When some people disagree on a
certain issue they must advocate and express their opinion in a
respectful manner, and hateful and provocative words should not be
used. Tolerance must be shown from both sides on issues; in order for
it to be effective.
Here, let it be clear that showing respect and to’lerance to the
opinions of others does not necessarily mean you have to compromise
your principles or embrace or accept others’ ideas. It is simply a matter
of fundamental human rights.
The right of every human being that his sensibilities and
sentiments shall not be violated and offended must be recognised. And
every human person has the right to have an opinion and to express
Highlight the salient features of Black Michael’s character
Black Michael is the most outstanding character of
the novel “The prisoner of Zenda”. He represents the forces of evil
whereas Rudolf represents those of good. Thus, he is in sharp contrast
with the hero of the novel a phenomenon necessary for the readers to
distinguish one with the othe
As a Villain: Black Michael,
the Duke of Stralsau, is the villain of the
novel. He is the half-brother of Rudolf Elphberg. He has no legal right to
the throne of Ruritania because he is the son of late king by a second
and morganatic marriage. He loves the Princess just to get the throne.
For this purpose he hatches a plot to imprison the lawful king. He
succeeds but can’t ascend the throne because of Rassendyll who
impersonates the real king. So Michael becomes the mortal enemy of
Rassendyll. With’ the support of his followers he’ tries hard to remove
Rassendyll from the throne of Ruritania but in vain
Hypocrite and Coward:
Black Michael is a hypocrite. He promises
Mauban to marry her but at the same time he tries to win the love of
Flavia and wants to marry her in order to make his right to the throne
stronger. He also makes a false’ show of love to Rudolf Elphberg. He is
a coward and depends entirely on his six followers who always fight for
Wicked and Selfish:
He is crooked by nature and is.a schemer and
plotter. He is such a wicked, selfish and unreliable man that he fails to
inspire confidence even in his closest companions as we see in the
case of Rupert who inflicts a fatal wound on him
A Hateful Character
Black Michael is a hateful character. We begin to
hate him as soon as his evil nature is exposed to us and our hatred is
intensified with the advancement of the story. When he is killed, we do not feel any sympathy for him. In fact, he rightly punished for his
An Important Character
The character of Black Michael is the basis
of the story because the story of the novel originates from his
wickedness and lust for power. He contributes a great deal in the
advancement of the story. So, Black Michael is an important character
of the novel
OR Give an account of the coronation ceremony with reference to Rudolf Rassendylls’ behavimr
Introduction: The story of the “Prisoner of Zenda” revolves around the character of Rudolf Rassendyll, who is the chief character of the novel. He is the hero portrayed in the tradition of romance. He is a man of upright character, who fights against the forces of evi and finally eliminates them. He possesses all the qualities of thought and emotions which are expected from a typical hero of a romance I
As a Hero: Rudolf Rassendyll is the hero of the novel “The Prisoner of Zenda”. He is a highly educated man and can speak English, German, French, Ifalian and Spanish fluently. He is ‘a strong swordsman and good shot. In the beginning of the novel Rassendyll seems to be a lazy and carefree youth but when by chance he becomes the king of Ruritania, be being to display his talents. He plays his role very successfully, particularly during the reception at the railway station the procession and crowning ceremonies. He behaves with dignitaries and the people in general in such a manner as if he has been a king all his life. Everyone takes him for the real king of Ruritania.
Honest and Sincere: Rassendyll is very honest and straightforward. He is sincere, devoted, faithful and selfless friend. After the liberation of Rudolf Elphberg from the prison of Zenda, Rassendyll goes away, from Ruritania but even after his departure his friends and the people of Ruritania rememberhim for these qualities. Rassendyll could easily usurp the Kingdom of Ruritania but he does not On the contrary he at the risk of his life, fights for the king, saves his life and restores his kingdom.
An Intelligent and Brave man: Rassendyll is an intelligent and brave man. He is a good planner. For liberating the king from the prison of Zenda, he makes plans which are implemented by the men led by him. Fritz and Sapt would have never succeeded in liberating the king. It is the bravery of Rassendyll that he enters the castle, fignts With guards single handed and saves the king’s life.
As a Lover: Rassendyll falls in love with Princess F.avi<! H loves her passicnately and sincerely but he sacrifices his love for the sake Lf king and the people of Ruritania.
An Unforgettable Character: In fact, Rassendyll is the rrost Irr.portant and interesting character of the noveL~When he perform e feats of bravery he wins ou admiration. We become sand when he his love but at the same time we greatly impressed by his great sacrifice. Undoubtedly the character of Rassendyll is unforgettable.
5. Read the following passage and answer the questionsthat below:
We who live in the present-day world, call ourselves civilized. Is it because we live and dress better than our forefathers? Of course, we have the advantages of the inventions of science which our forefathers had never known. But let us search our hearts and ask ourselves ‘Has science solved our problems? Frankly speaking, the answer is ‘No.’ In fact, science has added to our worries. Perhaps we can kill people more easily and swiftly than ever before. That is why, we wage wars among ourselves. let us learn to live in peace. let us spread the message of brotherhood among the nations.
i) Why do we call ourselves civilized?
We call ourselves civilized because we live and dress better than our forefathers.
ii) Has science solved all our problems? ,
No, science has not solved all our problems.
iii) How can we be truly civilized?
We can be truly civilized when we have learnt how to live in peace. Also, when we have brotherhood among the nation.
iv) Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
Civilized or Not.