SECTION “A” (COMPULSORY)(M.C.Q.S)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(1) Which one is the green house gas:
(2) He is acknowledged as the Father of Chemistry:
* Jabir Bin Hayan
* Yaqoob AI-Kindi
* Ibnul Haitham
* Bu Ali Sina
(3) Liver, fish, milk and eggs provide vitamin:
(4) It is not a fossil fuel:
* Natural fuel gas
(5) When running water moves a turbine; the potential energy of water is changed into:
* Kinetic energy
* Mechanical energy
* Electrical energy
* Chemical energy
(6) Which one of the following is the most dangerous air pollutant?
* Dust particles
* Carbon dioxide
* Carbon monoxide
(7) The energy that we get by eating food is known as:
* Mechanical energy
* Potential energy
* Kinetic energy
* Heat energy
(8) The unit of capacity of capacitor is called:
(9) Pakistan Science Foundation was setup in:
(10) Atmosphere extends above the earth surface upto a height of:
* 65 km
* 650 km
* 6500 km
* 605 km
(11) Goitre is caused by:
* Endocrine malfunction
* Viral infection
* Bacterial infection
* Nutritional deficiency
(12) Ptyalin present in our saliva is a:
* Proteolytic enzyme
* Lipolytic enzyme
* Amylolytic enzyme
(13) The most essential element in petroleum and other organic compounds is:
(14) Percentage of Nitrogen in urea is:
(15) The organization for space research in Pakistan is:
(16) BCG vaccine is used for the treatment of:
(17) An average human body contains blood:
* about one litre
* about five litre
* about ten litre
* about fifteen litre
(18) The insulin hormone is secreted by the gland known as:
(19) Green house effect keeps the earth’s atmosphere:
(20) The book AI-Qanoon was written by:
* Bu Ali Sina
SECTION “B” (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
NOTE: Answer 10 questions from this section. No answer should exceed 03 to 04 sentences.
(2) Define Energy. Write two conventional and two non-conventional sources of energy.
Energy: Energy can be defined as “energy is the ability of a body to do work,”
Sources of Energy: are classified
i) Conventional, and (ii) Non conventional
(i) Conventional sources:
Conventional sources of energy are, Fuels such as coal, wood, oil and Natural gas.
(ii) Non Conventional sources:
Non conventional source of energy are, the Sun, the Wind, the tides, geo-thermal, Bio-mass and the nucleus of atom.
(1) Conventional sources:
(a) Natural Gas: It is obtained from underground at Sui in Baluchistan. It is used in home for domestic purpose working and heating water. It is also used in fertilizer industry, and to produce thermal power. But this natural gas is limited and must be used very carefully without wasting it.
(b) Oil: Oil is used for different purposes. It is used in vehicles, in lighting lamps, in factories. It must be used without waste.
(2) Non Conventional sources:
(a) Solar energy: Solar energy is the energy obtained from sun-light. Solar cell can change this energy into electric energy. Solar cells are used in calculators, watches etc. Batteries made from solar cells are used in radios, television and in artificial satellites.
(b) Energy from Wind: Energy from wind is used to run long blades of a wind mill. This in turn moves other parts of a machine for example grinding corn etc.
In Pakistan efforts are taken to use the energy of blowing wind for pumping water and producing electrical energy.
(3) What are Hormones? Name any four hormone producing glands.
These are dustless glands whose secretions are dropped into the blood and are very essential for body functions and healthy growth.
Three endocrine glands are:
(i) Thyroid glands: They secrete the enzyme called Thyroxin.
(ii) Pancreas glands: This gland secretes Insulin which controls the sugar level in blood.
(iii) Adrenal glands: They secrete the enzyme called cortisone.
(4) Write the percentage of various gases air is composed of.
Composition of Air:
The percentage composition of air by volume is as follows.
Carbon dioxide 0.03%
Argon and 0.93%
Other noble gases 0.003%
Water vapour Valuable
(5) Name five major components of food and write one function of each.
The five constituents of food are:
(i) CARBOHYDRATES: The major function of carbohydrates is to generate energy in the body. In the body during digestion the complex carbohydrates are converted into glucose, which is oxidized inside the cells and provides energy to the body.
(ii) FATS: Fats and oils are the best sources of energy for our bodies. As such they are called energy foods.
(iii) PROTEINS: These are the building units of body. Proteins are responsible for the building of flesh, bones and in the increase of growth.
(iv) VITAMINS: There are different kinds of vitamins found in human food. Each kind of vitamin does its own kind of work and has its own special effect on the body.
(v) WATER: Water is considered as a universal solvent. Being a good solvent water dissolves in itself many of the nutrients that have to be carried to the different parts of the body through blood.
(6) What is Science? Name any four branches of Science and also describe what they deal with.
Three important branches of science are:
(i) Physics: Physics is that branch of science, which deals with properties of matter, and different kinds of energy such as light, heat, electricity etc. It also deals with the basic principles and laws, which enable to under stand science.
(ii) Chemistry: Chemistry is the branch with deals the composition of matter properties and changes taking place due to interaction. Chemistry has two main branches. Inorganic chemistry deals with study of elements and their compound. Organic chemistry is about substances obtained from living things like fat, starch, sugar, etc.
(iii) Biology: Biology is the branch of science in which we study living things, i.e. plants and animals, Botany are its branch which is about plants while ‘Zoology’ deals with animals.
(iv) Astronomy: Astronomy is yet an other branch of science which studies the relationship of our planet earth with other heavenly bodies such as, sun, moon, stars etc. It was astronomy which guided the ancient navigators and travelers to go through the vast oceans and deserts of the world.
(7) What is Computer? Name its four basic units and write their functions.
Computer is an invention, which can solve complicated problems by following instructions given to it in a very short time.
A computer has four basic units:
(i) Input unit
(ii) Control unit
(iii) Memory unit
(iv) Output unit
(i) Input unit:
All information in the form of data, and the instructions to handle it are entered into the computer through the input unit. It is a keyboard of an ordinary typewriter.
(ii) Control unit:
The information or data given to input unit enters a system which consists of a control and arithmetic logic unit. Control unit acts according to the given instructions and instructs the arithmetic logic unit to perform the necessary calculations.
(iii) Memory unit:
Stores the data, information and instructions needed to solve the problem. It can also stare any other information or record, which a person wants to save in the memory note boot of computer.
The control unit is the most important part, which actually solves the problem given to it. It is the nerve center of the computer and controls the flow of instructions and instructions and information through out the whole system.
(iv) Output unit:
The happenings in the computer are displayed on the output unit, which is usually a television type screen along with a printer.
The results can be viewed on the television screen and can be printed on the printer for permanent record.
(8) What does RADAR stand for? Write down its four uses.
Radar is an electronic nuclear device which emits high frequency radiations.
(i) It is used at war time to detect an enemy plane coming in the atmosphere of our country.
(ii) At peace time it helps in the safe landing of aircrafts in low visibility.
(iii) In ships it is used to know the safe passage in the sea and the presence of other ships in vicinity.
(9) Write two symptoms and three causes of AIDS.
(i) AIDS is caused by a special virus called HIV.
(ii) Virus is transmitted through effected blood and vaginal secretion.
(i) There may be symptom like common cold, which is usually not noticed for months but gradually develops full disease.
(ii) Loss of more than 10%body weight occurs.
(iii) Persistent diarrhea for a month or more. Cough is persistent. Big red spots appear on the body.
(10) Write any five harmful effects of air pollution.
Harmful Effects of Air Pollution:
Pollution means addition of harmful substances in air
(1) Pollutants in air are germs, smoke harmful gases, all these cause very bad effects on our health. Smoke and soot can cause heart disease and lung cancer.
(2) Exhaust fumes affect eyes, nose and throat. They cause irritation of the sensitive living of eyes.
(3) Sulphur dioxide causes great damage to plants crops and in general to all vegetation.
(4) Some gaseous pollutants released from industrial and manufacturing processes have a poisonous effect on the leaves of plants. They retard growth & destroy plants tissues.
(5) Air pollution due to smoke and suspended particular cause reduction in visibility. This increase the danger of accidents on roads.
(11) Name the elements found in human body and briefly describe any three of them.
ELEMENTS IN HUMAN BODY:
(1) CARBON: Carbon plays an important role in the growth of human body.
(2) OXYGEN: Oxygen combines with hemoglobin in blood and circulates in body to give life to every cell.
(3) CALCIUM: Calcium is very essential for strong bones and teeth.
(12) Define an Isotope. Write three isotopes of hydrogen.
DEFINE ISOTOPES: Atoms of the same element which have different mass number due to presence of neutrons in their nuclei are called Isotopes.
Hydrogen has three Isotopes:
(i) The Normal Hydrogen: is called protium it has one proton in the nuclear. It is denoted as 1H¹
(ii) Deuterium: is called heavy Hydrogen its nucleus contains 1 neutron also in addition to the proton. There fore its Mass No. is 2. It is denoted as 1H²
(iii) Tritium: is another Isotope of H having 2 neutrons in the nucleus in addition to the proton. Its Mass No is 3 and denoted as 1H³.
(13) Write any five precautionary measures to avoid an infectious disease.
Precautionary measures to avoid an infectious disease:
(1) Germs the causative organism of diseases are destroyed by sterilization. If environment is made mosquito free, malaria will not spread.
(2) Pet animals, another cause of some diseases, should be vaccinated and treated. Dogs and cats with disease called rabies should be destroyed at once.
(3) Personal hygiene should be maintained and body be kept clean so the chances of entry of germ inside the body be minimized.
(4) Municipal hygiene should be stressed upon to avoid any sort of contamination of air, water, a foods and hence chances of the spread of parasites or their carriers be reduced.
(5) Routine vaccination course be done and special vaccination drive be launched in case of epidemics.
(14) What is meant by Metabolism? Name its two phases and define them.
All the living things are carrying out a number of activities like respiration, excretion, growth, reproduction etc. All these activities involve a large number of chemical reactions going on in the body of an organism all the time. once these reactions stop the organism dies. The sum of all these chemical reactions occurring within the body of an organism is called metabolism. Metabolism has two distinct phases:
(1) One phase is called anabolism which involves synthesis of organic compound like carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
(2) The other phase called catabolism involves the breaking up of these organic compounds for the liberation of energy for the body activities.
Example: (1) Photosynthesis is an example of anabolism because it involves the synthesis of carbohydrates from inorganic compounds. Respiration on the other hand is a catabolic reaction and involves the breaking up of carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and water for the liberation of energy.
Example: (2) The foods eaten by animals cannot be utilized by their body cells. They undergo a process of digestion inside digestive tube by which their insoluble parts are made soluble. As a result, carbohydrates are changed into glucose molecules; proteins into amino acids and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. The digested food molecules are then absorbed into cells where they are either constructed into a complex compound to be the part of protoplasm or broken down to produce energy.
(15) What is Lasers? Write their four uses.
Laser is nothing but light of one colour, one wave length and is highly amplified. It does not disperse. Therefore, it goes in one direction for longer distance without any significant change in its intensity.
Uses of Laser:
(i) Lasers are used for microsurgery of the retina of human eye.
(ii) Five lasers are used to destroy the harmful tissues of body.
(iii) Lasers are used for welding metal joints or cutting through thick metal plates.
(iv) Lasers are also employed in tanks, missiles and bombers to locate the exact position of the enemy and to measure the speed and distance of enemy planes.
(v) Very powerful lasers are being used for uranium enrichment and for producing extremely high temperature to initiate fusion reactions, It can be safely said that lasers are one of the most extensively used scientific discoveries of recent times.
(16) Write names of five important ,compounds of sodium and also write one use of each compound.
Sodium is an important element and it is used in different compounds made for man, in daily life and in the industries.
SOME IMPORTANT SODIUM COMPOUNDS:
(i) Caustic Soda or Sodium Hydroxide.
(ii) Washing Soda or Sodium Carbonate
(iii) Sodium Bicarbonate
(iv) Sodium Thiosalphate
(v) Sodium Nitrate
(i) Caustic Soda:
Caustic Soda has its chemical name sodium Hydroxide. It is used in making soap, paper and artificial silk.
(ii) Washing Soda or Sodium Carbonate:
Washing soda is used in the manufacture of glass, cloth, paper.
(iii) Sodium Bicarbonate:
Sodium Bicarbonate is used to make baking powder when mixed with tartaric.
(iv) Sodium Thiosalphate:
Sodium Thiosalphate is used in developing and painting photographic films.
(v) Sodium Nitrate:
Sodium Nitrate is used in making Nitric Acid for making fertilizer of soil.
SECTION ‘C’ (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
Note: Attempt 3 questions from this Section.
17. What is Allotropy? Write the properties and uses of the two crystalline allotropic forms of Carbon.
If the- same element occurs in nature in different physical states with different physical properties but chemically they are alike, it is called Allotropy.
Crystalline Allotropic forms of Carbon are:
(i) Diamond. (ii) Graphite.
Properties of Diamond:
(i) Its density is 3.3 gm/cm³ and is the hardest substance in nature.
(ii) It is a bad conductor of electricity but when heated very strongly, changes are to graphite.
Use: Beings the hardest substance it is used to scratch glass and cut all other substances.
Properties of Graphite:
(i) It is soft and lighter than diamond and can mark paper
(ii) It is a good conductor of electricity.
Use: It is a good lubricant. It is used in making lead pencils and electrodes in cells.
18. Describe different components of Blood. Also write the functions of each component.
BLOOD: Human blood is a complex connective tissue which is composed of (i) Blood cells and (ii) Components suspended in blood and cell like (iii) A clear straw coloured liquid called plasma.
(i) BLOOD CELLS: Blood cells are:
(a) Red Blood Cells:
Red blood cells called erythrocytes.
FUNCTION: They contain Hemoglobin which combines with oxygen we breath in and this oxygenated blood is supplied to all the cells of body.
(b) White Blood Cells:
White blood cells also leucocytes. They are lesser in number but larger than red blood cells.
FUNCTION: Leucocytes perform defense of body against invading micro organisms. In other words they fight with invading germs.
(ii) PLATELETS: Platelets are tiny cellular fragments are large in number in the blood.
FUNCTION: They prevent blood loss by repairing holes in the ruptured vessels and clotting the blood.
(iii) PLASMA: It is the fluid part of blood in which the blood cells are suspended.
FUNCTION: It stabilizes pH and osmotic pressure, prpmotes clotting and fights will foreign particles.
19. What is Hepatitis? Describe its different types with their causes, symptoms, and precautionary measures.
It is the inflammation of the liver. It is also a recent spreading and feared disease. It is caused by-a-number of Hepatitis viruses designated as A,B,C,D and E viruses respectively.
It is most common and is called infectious hepatitis. It is transmitted by faucal contaminated water and food. It grows in intestine and spread to liver, Kidneys and spleen. The disease is commonly called Jaundice, which causes fever, nausea, diarrhea and chills accompanied by yellowish of the skin and eyes and dark yellow urine. No specific treatment exists. It however, subsides in a few weeks.
Hepatitis-B and C:
These are serious infections. Virus entering the blood by blood transactions, contaminated syringes, saliva, sweats, and breast milk intra venous drugs and genital fluids The symptoms, some what resembles the symptoms of hepatitis-A. Two effective vaccines have been developed and majority of hepatitis Band C infections are now cured.
This virus called delta antigen is usually accompanied in patient with hepatitis-B and adds to the seriousness of the infections.
It spread by faucal-oral transaction and is common in countries with poor sanitation. It some-what .resembles Hepatitis-A and does not cause chronic liver diseases. The initial symptoms include, fever, swollen lymph nodes, loss of appetite and weight and red rashes all over the body.
HIV from the blood of carrier may be passed on by sexual contact and especially directly through blood during unscreened blood transactions. Sharing of syringes, razors, tooth brushes or anything else which punctures your skin and come in contact with your blood could be the source of HIV/AIDS introduction in the body.
20. Name any five Muslims Scientists and describe their achievements in the development of Science.
Five Muslim scientists are:
(1) lbn-ul- Haitham
(2) Bu Ali Sena
(3) AI Beruni
(4) Muhammed Bin Zakria AI Razi
(i) He was great Muslim scientist and a scholar of physics Mathematics, astronomy, and medicine.
(ii) He wrote a famous book “Kitabul Manazir” on optics.
(iii) He gave the laws of reflection for the first time.
(iv) He made the first camera the pin hole camera.
(v) He showed that light hovels in straight line.
21. Define Radioactivity. Name Radioactive rays. Write Properties of any one radioactive rays.
The emission of invisible radiations from Uranium and other heavier elements like Radium etc. is known as Radioactivity.
There are three radioactive rays.
(i) Alpha Rays.
(ii) Beta rays.
(iii) Gama rays.
PROPERTIES OF ALPHA RAYS:
(i) They are actually Helium nuclei and have mass equal to 4 times that of ‘H’ nucleus.
(ii) Charge on a. particle is positive and twice the charge of a proton.(iii)Their ionization capability is very large.
(iv)But their penetration power is very small.
(v)Alpha rays produce fluorescence that is brighten when they fall on certain substances.
(vi) They are harmful to human body and produce burns and sores on the skin.
(vii) Alpha rays can induce artificial radioactivity in certain nuclei.