SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for ea h from the given options:
(i) Which rays are used for the treatment of Cancer?
* Light rays
* Radioactive rays
* Infra red rays
* Metallic rays
(ii) A mixture of clay and — is used in pencils.
(iii) The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission established in the year A.D.
(iv) The most essential element of all organic compounds
(v) Percentage of Nitrogen in air is:
(vi) The vessels carrying blood from the heart to the body are called:
* Dorsal Aorta
(vii) E.C.G. is used for the diagnosis of the disease of:
(viii) The organization for space in Pakistan is:
(ix) It converts milk into curd
(x) Blood of this group can be donated to any Person:
(xi) It is the inner most layer of eye:
* optic nerve
* Vitreous humour
(xii) Malaria is a disease caused by:
(xiii) Air Pollution can be reduced by increasing the no. of:
* Oil Refineries
(xiv) Which Muslim scientist wrote the book “Kitab – Manazir”?
(xv) The essential component of teeth and bones is:
(xvi) The insulin hormone secreted by the gland is known as_.
* Pituitary gland
(xvii) The important elements of petrol is _
(xviii) Hepatitis is the swelling of _____
(xix) The branch of science in which we study about force & energy is called:
(xx) The Unit of measurement of an electric current is called:
* Electric Energy
SECTION “B” (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
3. What are Hormones? Name any four hormone producing glands.
Hormone: Hormones are secretions of glands and are essential for digestion of food and proper growth.
Names of four hormone:
(i) Thyroxin secreted by thyroid gland.
(ii) Insulin and glucagons.
(iii) Saliva from salivary glands.
(iv) Cortisone from Adrenal gland.
4. Write names of five products obtained from dairy farms. Describe their uses.
The products obtained from dairy farms are:
(iii) Yogurt or Curds
(v) Ice Cream
(vi) Butter and ghee
It is the most important liquid food containing all the ingredients necessary for health. It is very useful for growing children.
Cream is used in break fast and in making sweet dishes and cakes.
(iii) Butter and Ghee:
Cream contains 30 to 40 percent of butter which is removed and used. When butter is melted ghee is formed which is a pure fat for health.
Milk on fermentation gives yogurt or curds. It is eaten as it is or used in cooking foods.
Cheese is used in making different bakery products and sweet meats.
(vi) Ice Cream: Ice cream is a tasty and nourishing product used by children and almost people of all ages.
5. Write names of five diseases caused by Bacteria.
Diseases caused by Bacteria are:
(ii) Whooping Cough
6. What is pollution? Write four harmful effects of pollution.
Pollution means addition of harmful things in air, water and eatables.
HARMFUL EFFECTS OF POLLUTION:
(i) Pollution in air contains Germs, bacteria, harmful gases Such polluted air cause different diseases.
(ii) Pollution in water contains harmful liquids like water from factories, water from sewerage tanks mixing in drinking water such water is dangerous for health.
(iii) Pollution of air cause bad weather conditions, for example fog.
(iv) Pollution due to smoke and other suspended particles causes low visibility on roads. This results in serious accidents.
7. What are Minerals? Name any four important minerals of Pakistan.
Minerals are chemical compounds naturally present in earth’s crust. They are the raw materials for obtaining metals, non-metals and other useful products.
Four important minerals of Pakistan are:
(i) Chromite: It is used for polishing other metal.
(ii) Gypsum: It is used for the manufacture of glass & cement.
(iii) Mica: It is used in electrical instrument.
(iv) Gem Stones: It is used for polished on jewellery.
8. What is ‘Laser’ Write its four uses.
Laser is nothing but light of one colour, one wave length and is highly amplified. It does not disperse. Therefore, it goes in one direction for longer distance without any significant change in its intensity.
Uses of Laser:
(i) Lasers are used for microsurgery of the retina of human eye.
(ii) Five lasers are used to destroy the harmful tissues of body.
(iii) Lasers are used for welding metal joints or cutting through thick metal plates.
(iv) Lasers are also employed in tanks, missiles and bombers to locate the exact position of the enemy and to measure the speed and distance of enemy planes.
(v) Very powerful lasers are being used for uranium enrichment and for producing extremely high temperature to initiate fusion reactions, It can be safely said that lasers are one of the most extensively used scientific discoveries of recent times.
9. Write a short note on, “Information Technology.
Information Technology means proper and useful application from different sources.
Scientific knowledge and technology has enabled man to explore different fields, and this brings about progress in different sectors and improves economy of a nation.
Computer plays a very important role in analyzing the information in different fields, and putting them in proper channels. In the modern world of today information technology has become a very important source and department for progress. Information technology keeps us aware of what is happening in the world in different fields of trade, commerce and science.
10. Name the elements found in human body and describe in detail any three of them.
ELEMENTS IN HUMAN BODY:
(1) CARBON: Carbon plays an important role in the growth of human body.
(2) OXYGEN: Oxygen combines with hemoglobin in blood and circulates in body to give life to every cell.
(3) CALCIUM: Calcium is very essential for strong bones and teeth.
11. Write any five precautionary measures to avoid infectious diseases.
Precautionary measures to avoid an infectious disease:
(1) Germs the causative organism of diseases are destroyed by sterilization. If environment is made mosquito free, malaria will not spread.
(2) Pet animals, another cause of some diseases, should be vaccinated and treated. Dogs and cats with disease called rabies should be destroyed at once.
(3) Personal hygiene should be maintained and body be kept clean so the chances of entry of germ inside the body be minimized.
(4) Municipal hygiene should be stressed upon to avoid any sort of contamination of air, water, a foods and hence chances of the spread of parasites or their carriers be reduced.
(5) Routine vaccination course be done and special vaccination drive be launched in case of epidemics.
12. Write a note on the space program of Pak.
PAKISTAN’S SPACE PROGRAM:
Space exploration yields useful information and provides useful economic benefits.
Pakistan is one of the very few developing countries which has established an organization for space research. The name of this organization is SUPARCO. It stands for space and upper atmosphere research corporation. This organization has its research and testing facilities at Sonmiani near Karachi. It has fired several rockets for weather research. It has also established ground stations to receive data from weather satellites round the clock, for short and long range weather forecasts.
13. Write down Two symptoms and Three causes of measles.
It is caused by measles virus and is spread by respiratory route. After incubation and multiplications of virus the symptoms like common cold, sor throat headache and cough appear, which are followed by the red rashes beginning on the face and extending on trunk and limbs.
14. Define Isotopes. Write three isotopes of hydrogen.
DEFINE ISOTOPES: Atoms of the same element which have different mass number due to presence of neutrons in their nuclei are called Isotopes.
Hydrogen has three Isotopes:
(i) The Normal Hydrogen: is called protium it has one proton in the nuclear. It is denoted as 1H¹
(ii) Deuterium: is called heavy Hydrogen its nucleus contains 1 neutron also in addition to the proton. There fore its Mass No. is 2. It is denoted as 1H²
(iii) Tritium: is another Isotope of H having 2 neutrons in the nucleus in addition to the proton. Its Mass No is 3 and denoted as 1H³.
15. Name six constituents of food and describe proteins.
A Balanced Diet: is the diet, which contains all the constituents of food in, quantifies which are necessary for proper growth and maintenance of health.
The six constituents of food are:
PROTEINS: These are the building units of body. Proteins are responsible for the building of flesh, bones and in the increase of growth.
Proteins contain amino acids which are organic compounds of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Amino acids pass through the walls of intestine into the blood. Proteins also provide heat and energy to the body. Proteins are found in all kinds of meat, egg, milk, wheat, beans, peas. If the food of a child lacks proteins, his growth is stunted and remains weak.
CARBOHYDRATES: These are the compounds formed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Sugar, starch is examples of carbohydrates.
The major function of carbohydrates is to generate energy in the body. In the body during digestion the complex carbohydrates are converted into glucose, which is oxidized inside the cells and provides energy to the body.
Carbohydrates are found in wheat, rice, grams, sugarcane, potatoes, beet-roots and sugar or sweet foods
16. Write five functions of Skin.
FUNCTIONS OF SKIN:
(i) Skin gives a covering, shape and protection to the skeleton and muscles.
(ii) Skin has hairs and sweat comes out through the pores to keep body cool.
(iii) Skin has oil glands and the oil which comes out gives smoothness to the body surface and protests the skin from becoming dry.
(iv) Skin gives protection from hurt and damage to inner parts of body.
(v) Skin gives a colour and complexion to the human body.
SECTION ‘C’ (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
Note: Attempt 3 question from this Section
17. What is Science? Name only four branches of science & tell what they deal with.
DEFINE: Science is a word from Latin Language “Scientia” It means ‘to know’ There are many aspects of science. It is a collection of facts and theories about the universe; which helps us in describing and understanding natural phenomena and it helps us in making predictions about the behaviour of natural phenomena.
Branches of science:
Three important branches of science are:
(i) Physics: Physics is that branch of science, which deals with properties of matter, and different kinds of energy such as light, heat, electricity etc. It also deals with the basic principles and laws, which enable to under stand science.
(ii) Chemistry: Chemistry is the branch with deals the composition of matter properties and changes taking place due to interaction. Chemistry has two main branches. Inorganic chemistry deals with study of elements and their compound. Organic chemistry is about substances obtained from living things like fat, starch, sugar, etc.
(iii) Biology: Biology is the branch of science in which we study living things, i.e. plants and animals, Botany are its branch which is about plants while ‘Zoology’ deals with animals.
(iv) Astronomy: Astronomy is yet an other branch of science which studies the relationship of our planet earth with other heavenly bodies such as, sun, moon, stars etc. It was astronomy which guided the ancient navigators and travelers to go through the vast oceans and deserts of the world.
18. Write causes, symptoms & preventative measures against Tuberculosis or Aids.
It is caused by a bacterium called Myco bacterium tubers Loges.
(i) The diseases is contagious and spread by close contacts with a patient of T.B. by using his things.
(ii) The spit of a T.B. patient carries the bacterium and this bacterium get mixed in air from the spit and causes the disease.
(iii) From the milk of T.B. affected cows and not properly boiled milk is also its cause.
(i) Persistent cough and lungs get affected.
(ii) Constant fever and tiredness.
(iii) Pain in legs and back, joint, night sweat.
(iv) The person feels very exhausted and tired by small amount of work.
PREVENTIVE MEASURE AGAINST T.B.
(i) B.C.G. vaccination of school children should be done.
(ii) A.T.B. patient must be isolated and his utensils and towel must be .separated. Close contact with a T.B. patient should be avoided
(i) AIDS is caused by a special virus called HIV.
(ii) Virus is transmitted through effected blood and vaginal secretion.
(i) There may be symptom like common cold, which is usually not noticed for months but gradually develops full disease.
(ii) Loss of more than 10%body weight occurs.
(iii) Persistent diarrhea for a month or more. Cough is persistent. Big red spots appear on the body.
PROPERTIES OF AIDS:
(i) Always remain limited to your spouse.
(ii) Insets on new disposable syringes for injection.
(iii) If blood is to be transmitted it should be ensured that the does not contain AIDS virus.
19. What is a Computer? Name its four important parts and write the functions of each part.
Computer is an invention, which can solve complicated problems by following instructions given to it in a very short time.
A computer has four basic units:
(i) Input unit
(ii) Control unit
(iii) Memory unit
(iv) Output unit
(i) Input unit:
All information in the form of data, and the instructions to handle it are entered into the computer through the input unit. It is a keyboard of an ordinary typewriter.
(ii) Control unit:
The information or data given to input unit enters a system which consists of a control and arithmetic logic unit. Control unit acts according to the given instructions and instructs the arithmetic logic unit to perform the necessary calculations.
(iii) Memory unit:
Stores the data, information and instructions needed to solve the problem. It can also stare any other information or record, which a person wants to save in the memory note boot of computer.
The control unit is the most important part, which actually solves the problem given to it. It is the nerve center of the computer and controls the flow of instructions and instructions and information through out the whole system.
(iv) Output unit:
The happenings in the computer are displayed on the output unit, which is usually a television type screen along with a printer.
The results can be viewed on the television screen and can be printed on the printer for permanent record.
20. What is Allotropy? Write the properties of the crystalline forms of Carbon.
If the- same element occurs in nature in different physical states with different physical properties but chemically they are alike, it is called Allotropy.
Crystalline Allotropic forms of Carbon are:
(i) Diamond. (ii) Graphite.
Properties of Diamond:
(i) Its density is 3.3 gm/cm³ and is the hardest substance in nature.
(ii) It is a bad conductor of electricity but when heated very strongly, changes are to graphite.
Use: Beings the hardest substance it is used to scratch glass and cut all other substances.
Properties of Graphite:
(i) It is soft and lighter than diamond and can mark paper
(ii) It is a good conductor of electricity.
Use: It is a good lubricant. It is used in making lead pencils and electrodes in cells.
21. What is Hepatitis and what are its different types? Write their causes, symptoms and precautionary measures against it.
It is the inflammation of the liver. It is also a recent spreading and feared disease. It is caused by-a-number of Hepatitis viruses designated as A,B,C,D and E viruses respectively.
It is most common and is called infectious hepatitis. It is transmitted by faucal contaminated water and food. It grows in intestine and spread to liver, Kidneys and spleen. The disease is commonly called Jaundice, which causes fever, nausea, diarrhea and chills accompanied by yellowish of the skin and eyes and dark yellow urine. No specific treatment exists. It however, subsides in a few weeks.
Hepatitis-B and C:
These are serious infections. Virus entering the blood by blood transactions, contaminated syringes, saliva, sweats, and breast milk intra venous drugs and genital fluids The symptoms, some what resembles the symptoms of hepatitis-A. Two effective vaccines have been developed and majority of hepatitis Band C infections are now cured.
This virus called delta antigen is usually accompanied in patient with hepatitis-B and adds to the seriousness of the infections.
It spread by faucal-oral transaction and is common in countries with poor sanitation. It some-what .resembles Hepatitis-A and does not cause chronic liver diseases. The initial symptoms include, fever, swollen lymph nodes, loss of appetite and weight and red rashes all over the body.
HIV from the blood of carrier may be passed on by sexual contact and especially directly through blood during unscreened blood transactions. Sharing of syringes, razors, tooth brushes or anything else which punctures your skin and come in contact with your blood could be the source of HIV/AIDS introduction in the body.