GEOGRAPHY Past Paper 2nd year 2011 (Private) Karachi Board


1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:

(i) This type of climate is required for sugarcane cultivation
* Dry desert-like
* Cool desert-like
* Humid tropical
* Hot equatorial

(ii) This country is the leading buyer of tea in the world:
* U.S.A.
* Canada
* U.K.
* France

(iii) In Asia, this country is the leader in gold mining:
* China
* Japan
* Philippines
* SriLanka

(iv) About 80% of this power is produced in Europe and North America:
* Atomic
* Hydroelectric
* Wind
* Thermal

(v) The biggest reserve of uranium in the world is in:
* Canada
* Australia
* France
* Germany

(vi) The per sq. km population density of the world in 2010 A.D. was:
* 95
* 75
* 49
* 25

(vii) Every year, Pakistan imports a large quantity of this. oil from U.S.A.:
* Coconut
* Soyabean
* Cotton seed
* Palm

(viii) Pakistan produces only this per cent of mineral oil of its requirement:
* 30
* 40
* 45
* 24

(ix) This is the biggest railway line of the country:
* Karachi to Quetta
* Peshawar to Quetta
* Rohri to Chaman
* Karachi to Peshawar

(x) The second atomic power plant of Pakistan is situated at
* Sukkur.
* Swabi
* Chaghae
* Chashma

(xi) The average annual rainfall in Pakistan is:
* 20 inches
* 25 inches
* 30 inches
* 35 inches

(xii) Warsak Dam is built on the river:
* Jehlum
* Indus
* Kabul
* Chenab

(xiii) In the world, about one third of total fish is caught in:
* North East Asia
* South Asia
* North Western Europe
* North Eastern America

(xiv) Commercial grain farming is practiced in the grasslands of:
* Frigid Region
* Equatorial Region
* Temperate region
* Tundra

(xv) More than 95% of the world production of this crop is obtained from Monsoon Asia:
* Sugarcane
* Cotton
* Maize
* Rice


2. Attempt any Five of the following.

(i) Differentiate between Renewable natural resource & Non-renewable natural resources.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 2(i) of 2011 Regular

(ii) The construction and maintenance of roads and railways in the desert areas and equatorial regions is difficult. Discuss.

ANSWER: Climate consideration can not be ignored whole laying down lines of communication. The construction and maintenance of roads and railways in the desert areas and the equatorial region are difficult. In the desert strong winds carry great quantities of sand which cover roads and railways. In the equatorial region, the swampy character of the land and the dense vegetation make the construction of roads and railways difficult and their maintenance even more difficult.

(iii) Climatic influences are more marked on agriculture than Industry. Comment.

Impacts of change in climate will affect:
 agricultural food systems in all countries, including exporters and importers as well as those at subsistence level. Changes in mean rainfall and temperate as well as the increase in extreme events win affect agriculture, livestock, forestry as well as fisheries. Many impacts, such as increased land degradation and soil erosion, changes in water availability, biodiversity loss, more frequent and more intense pest and disease outbreaks as well as disasters.

(iv) What is the most important by product of cotton? Explain its importance.

ANSWER: Cotton seeds are valuable by-products. The seeds are delinted by a similar process to ginning. Some linter is used to make candle wicks, string, cotton balls, cotton batting, paper and cellulose products such as rayon, plastics, photographic film, and cellophane. The delinted seeds are crushed and the kernel is separated from the hull and squeezed. The cottonseed oil obtained from the kernels is used for cooking oil, shortening, soaps, and cosmetics. A semi-solid residue from the refining process is called soap stock or foots, and provides fatty acids for various industrial uses such as insulation materials, soaps, linoleum, oilcloth, waterproofing materials, and as a paint base. The hulls are used for fertilizer, plastics, and paper. A liquid made from the hulls called furfural is used in the chemical industry. The remaining mash is used for livestock feed.

(v) China is the largest producing country of Iron-ore in the world, but, it is also a major importing country. Comment.

Please sea Q.2(viii) of 2014 Regular

(vi) Highlight the major buyers of coal in the world market.

ANSWER: India will overtake China and become the largest importer of coal in the world in 2012, reported by Bloomberg, citing research analysts from Citigroup. India’s purchases of coal from abroad this year will amount to 118 million tons compared to 102 million tons in China. Major coal importers currently with more than 30 million tons are Japan 182.1 million tons, China 151.9, South Korea 109.9, India 76.9, Taiwan 64.6, Germany 45.9, and United,Kingdom 42.2.

(vii) Why are accurate details about uranium not available?

ANSWER: The deposits of uranium are located in many countries of the world. The deposits of uranium are also found in ocean but it is impossible to mine uranium from the granite rocks of the ocean. 95 percent deposits of uranium are found among fourteen countries of the world while 5 percent deposits are also located in other countries. The mining process of uranium is being continued among 37 countries of
the world. Due to increasing utility of uranium and because of national interest, the accurate details about uranium are not available.

(viii) Why is rice . not grown in the ‘Tundra? Explain.

ANSWER: Rice is essentially a tropical crop; it requires high degree to temperature ranging between 70 degree F and 100 degree F. Whereas Tundra lies between 70 degree latitude, it is terribly cold throughout the year, the temperature remain below freezing point. The snow fall occurs even in summer season. That is why rice is not grown in the tundra.

3. Answer any 4 part questions. No answer should exceed 8 -10 lines.

(i) The salt range and the Potohar plateau are noted for non-metallic minerals. Explain.

ANSWER: Minerals are inorganic substances found deep inside the Earth, which are ‘mined’ for various uses. Mining is the process of removing the mineral ore from the Earth or from mountains and rocks, with heavy machinery and/or dynamite blasting. Minerals are of two kinds, metallic and non-metallic, i.e. minerals that contain or do not contain metals. In Pakistan, we have some metallic minerals such as celestite, barite, manganese, bauxite, iron ore, and copper, but chromite is the only metallic mineral we have in abundance, and which is mined on a large scale; it is found near Muslim Bagh in Balochistan. Chromite is used to make stainless steel from which surgical instruments and cutlery (knives, forks, spoons, etc.) are made. Balochistan is particularly rich in copper deposits, found at Saindak.

(ii) Differentiate between Makran Coast and Sindh Coast.

ANSWER: The coastline of Pakistan extends 1,050 km (650 mi), 250 km falling in Sindh province and 800 km in Balochistan. It borders the productive NE Arabian Sea famous for its upwelling phenomenon. Its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers an area of 196,600 and the territorial waters cover an area of 24,000 km². The’continental shelf of the Sindh coast extends to a distance of 150 km whereas that of Balochistan only measures 15-40 km. The prevailing ocean current direction is clockwise during the southwest monsoon season and anti-clockwise during the northeast monsoon season. The salinity value is generally 36 ppt. Tides are neither very high nor very low, but intermediate; the mean average height is about 10-11 feet. Tides are higher on the eastern side and their velocity is generally between 1-2 knots but may increase to 4 knots in narrow creeks. The Makran Coast Range forms a narrow strip of mountains along about rs percent of the total coast length, or about 800 km (500 mil. These steep mountains rise to an elevation of up to 1,500 m (5,000 ft). Most of the coast is
underdeveloped, with deserted beaches and only a few fishing villages.

(iii) Pakistan has great potential for the development of Solar power. Why is the generation of solar energy less developed in Pakistan?

ANSWER: Pakistan lies in an ‘area of one of the highest solar insulation in the world. There are certain regions of south, Quetta valley and Central Punjab that receive maximum solar radiation, the nation wide average, however, has been recorded on daily basis as 5.5 KW/m². [6] This means that there is a vast potential for converting the untapped solar energy source for useful means. This potential can be exploited to produce electricity, which can be provided to off grid communities in the northern hilly areas and the southern and western deserts. According to the Pakistan Energy Book 2004-05, solar energy falling on 0.25% Balochistan province would be adequate to meet the current requirement of the country with 20% efficient devices.

(iv) Briefly explain the share of primary commercial sector in the G.D.P. of Pakistan.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 3(iv) of 2013 Regular

(v) Write a short note on Tobacco-growing areas of Pak.

ANSWER: Tobacco is also an important cash crop. The ‘best tobacco growing areas are in Mardan and Peshawar and Punjab. Yields in Pakistan are about twice those for neighboring countries largely due to the extension services provided by the industry. Quality, however, is improving only slowly due to problems related to climate and soil. Farmers have started inter-cropping tobacco with vegetables and sugarcane to increase returns. About half of the total production is used for cigarette manufacturing and the remainder used in traditional ways of smoking (in hand-rolled cigarettes called birris, irr water pipes, and as snuff). The share of imported tobacco is increasing gradually in response to an increased demand for high-quality cigarettes.

(vi) Use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) has opened new opportunities of employment in Pakistan. Comment.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 3(iv) of 2012 Private

(vii) What is food Autarky? What is the present position of Pakistan in food Autarky?

ANSWER: Please see Q. 3(vi) of 2011 Regular


4. Attempt any two part questions.

(i) What do you mean by growth rate of population? With the help of following data, describe its trends in different countries of the world.


Population growth IS the change In a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using “per unit time” for measurement.

population growth is used, informally for the more specific term population growth rate and is often used to refer specifically to the growth of the human population of the world.

Population growth is determined by four factors, births(B), deaths(D), immigrants(I), and emigrants(E). Using a formula expressed as

In other words, the population growth of a period can be calculated in two parts, natural growth of population (B-O) and mechanical growth of population (I-E),in which Mechanical growth of population is mainly affected by social factors, e.g. the advanced economies’ are growing faster while the backward economies are growing slowly even with negative growth.

(ii) What is Human resource management? Indicate the important aspects to show the quality of Human resources.

ANSWER: Human resource management (HRM), entails planning, implementing, and managing recruitment, as well as selection, training, career, and organizational development initiatives within an organization. The goal of HRM is to maximize the productivity of an organization by optimizing the effectiveness of its employees while simultaneously improving the work life of employees and treating employees as valuable resources. Consequently, HRM encompasses efforts to promote personal development, employee satisfaction, and compliance with employment-related laws.

To achieve equilibrium between employer and employee goals and needs, HRM departments focus on these three general functions or activities: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The planning function refers to the development of human resource policies and regulations. Human resource managers attempt to determine future HRM activities and plan for the implementation of HRM procedures to help companies realize their goals.

The primary goal of the quality of HRM is to provide an atmosphere that promotes employee equipment. Empowerment requires the alignment, authority, capability, and commitment of employees. In order to achieve these goals, there are several steps that must be taken to achieve each goal.
Alignment can be realized if employees:
• Know the needs 6f customers and stakeholders
• Know, concur in, and be prepared to contribute effort
to organization strategies, goals, objectives, and plans.

In order for employees to the have the authority and opportunity to contribute to the organization, the following steps are required:

• Individual authority, responsibility, and capability are consistent
• Barriers to successful exercise of authority have been removed
• The necessary tools and support are in place

Employee capability can be developed through:
• Organizational training initiatives
• Educational development

An organization must earn the commitment of employees through:
• Reinforcement
• Recognition
• Rewards

(iii) Write in detail, the factors that determine. the regional location of an Industry.

ANSWER: Manufacturing is the second largest type of production after primary production activity of hunting, fishing, mining, lumbering, farming etc. Manufacturing has undergone a big change as a result of advancement of science and technology.

The location of manufacturing industries depends upon a number of geographical and economic factors. These factors are known as factors of localization of industry. The most important factors are:
(i) Raw material.
(ii) Source of Power.
(iii) Labour.
(iv) Means of transportation.
(v) Market.
(vi) Other factors like climate, Government Policies, capital, water, land etc.

(i) Raw Material:·
Among the factors influencing location of an industry, close proximity to raw material availability of regular supply of cheap raw material are of almost significance. Therefore, industries are set up close to or in the regions where raw material is available in plenty. If the raw material is heavy and of small value, the industries are set up in the regions of raw material. Iron smelting, brick making, cement manufacturing are best examples.

(ii) Source of Power:
All types of manufacturing industries depend upon one or the other sources of power. It may be coal, oil, electricity, gas etc.

In the industries, especially those of ferrous metallurgy, coal is the main source of power; therefore, these heavy industries are closely tied down to coal fields.

(iii) Labour:
Modern industry requires large labour force, both skilled and unskilled. The availability of cheap labour in a region is an important factor determining the localization of industries. Different types of industries require different types of labour force.

For example, watch-making, electronics, aeronautics, computers etc. require highly skilled labour, whereas, on the other hand, cotton textile manufacturing, sugar making, jute textile etc. employ more of unskilled labour.

(iv) Means of Transportation:
Industries depend upon efficient and cheap transportation system, which is essential for the movement of raw material as well as the finished products. They may be rail, road or water. Railway junctions are considered to be the most suitable sites for the localization of industries. These enjoy benefits of easy transportation from different directions. Similarly sea ports also develop as industrial centres because of availability of facilities of water transportation for export and import of products.

(v) Market:
Market is an important factor in determining localization of industries. Goods are manufactured to be sold in the market. Industries are generally set up close to urban centers. Sometimes, dense population may not prove to be solid market for the disposal of the different industrial products. If the people are poor, the purchasing capacity also becomes poor. In some of the Asian countries, where people are poor,

industries which are engaged in the manufacturing of cheap and essential goods like coarse cloth find an adequate market. This explains why under-developed countries, though densely populated are poor in manufacturing industries.

(vi) Other Factors:
(a) Climate:
Climate also plays a part in the location of industries. The stimulating cool temperate climate is more suitable for the development of industries because this type of climate adds to the work efficiency of the labour force. This is one of the major reasons why temperate latitudes have well-developed manufacturing industries rather than the tropics or the desert or the Tundra regions. Climate plays a significant role in location of cotton textile manufacturing industries. The cool and humid climate helps in spinning of yarn and weaving of cloth processes.

(b) Capital:
Development of industries requires a large capital investment. It may come from any source, local or foreign. Banks and other financial institutions play an important role in the growth of industries from time to time.

(c) Government Policy:
In order to give boost to industries in the country, the government gives certain guidelines, tax exemptions, electricity at concessional rates, subsidies, rail link etc. if these are set up as per government plan. Thus Government Policy plays a significant role in determining place of location of an industry. If the Government bans import of foreign cars, the automobile industry is bound to flourish in that country.

(d) Early Start:
There is a tendency to set up new units in the area, where that industry is already much developed. It is because the area has been enjoying benefits of developed means of transport, financial institutions, banking facilities, availability of skilled labour and marketing ease.

(e) Personal Preferences:
Personal whims, prejudices of an entrepreneur and preferences also matter sometimes in the setting up of an industry in an area, ignoring all the economic and commercial considerations.

In a democratic set up, sometimes political matters also initiate the establishment of certain heavy industries in certain regions.

(iv) Give an assessment of E·Commerce development in different regions of the world.

ANSWER: As of September 2006, over 1 billion people (or 16.7% of the world population) had access to the Internet (Miniwatts Marketing Group, 2006).World usage has increased by over 200% between 2000 and 2006. Yet, in developing countries, usage rates are Significantly lower than in developed countries. Since 1995,the economic consequences of the Internet and related technologies have increased dramatically, The technologies designed to improve commercial transactions using the Internet have evolved as quickly. However, we have not yet achieved an ideal world of painless and secure transactions utilizing the Internet, as unresolved privacy issues of the purchaser have impeded the further development of the technologies. During the last dozen years, e-commerce practices have changed in developed and developing countries. For instance, developing countries have fallen behind in the early stages of technology acquisition because of inefficient use of related knowledge, lack of investment within firms to acquire technology, lack of promotion policies that develop these technological areas and high costs of importing technology. Moreover, recent technological developments such as the introduction of digital signatures may widen the gap in the use of e-commerce technologies. Therefore, it is important to examine the perspectives of developing and transition economies with regard to the likely enforcement of digital signatures in carrying out e-commerce transactions. This is an important issue related to the expansion and promotion of e-commerce in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to review the situation of several developing and transition countries in relation to the implementation and enforce-ability of digital signatures in e-commerce transactions. Another important goal of this paper is to create awareness in different stakeholders related to the use, development, and enforcement of digital signatures to carry out e-commerce activities. Initially, we describe the methods and information used in this study. Subsequently, we deal with factors hampering the development of e-commerce processes in developing and transition countries, which opens our discussion of pre-requisites for successful e-commerce activities. In detail, we analyze the legal and regulatory frameworks for the promotion of e-commerce in developing countries. We then analyze the introduction, use, and enforcement of digital signatures as well as their likely implications for developing and transition countries. Finally, we propose a set of recommendations that may assist different Stakeholders.

The highest-ranked areas of the world in terms of e-readiness are North America, Western Europe, and some countries in Asia. On the other hand, the bulk of the countries with lower levels of e-readiness are located in developing and transition regions.

5. Answer any One part question.

(i) What is the role of Canal irrigation system in agriculture in Pakistan? Write its merits and demerits.

ANSWER: Please see Q. 5(ii) of 2012 Private

(ii) Write a detailed note on hydroelectric power production in Pakistan.

ANSWER: Pakistan and Germany have initiated serious discussions of German funding of eight ongoing and new hydro power projects worth billions of dollars. These talks are taking place in Islamabad between visiting German Minister for Economic Co-operation and Development Ms. Heidemaire Wiegoreak Zeul and Pakistani Prime Minister’s Adviser on Finance Mr. Shaukat Tarin, according Business Recorder newspaper.

The projects currently under discussion include 621MW Palas hydropower project, 567 MW Spat Gah hydropower project, 28 MW Basho hydropower project, 33 MW Harpo hydropower project, 70 MW Lawi hydropower project, Naigaj hydropower project and 300 KW Hingol hydropower project, 43 KW Kurram Tangi Dam. As a start, the German Economic Minister said her country had already committed finances for Keyal Khwar hydropower project located in NWFP on river Indus at Dasu. The project would generate 130 MW power. The focus of many of these development projects are the rural areas in the North West Frontier Province and the least developed federally administered tribal areas of the country affected by insurgencies.

Ms. Heidemaire Wiegoreak Zeul said that Germany was part of Friends of Democratic Pakistan (FoDP) and she had come here for the assessment of the situation and development needs to be discussed at Tokyo in April 17 and then again at the end Qf April during the annual meeting of the World Bank and IMF. She added that this support was important for Pakistan’s development to stabilize the country and the region.

In addition to mega projects such as 1000 MW Neelum- Jhelum hydropower project, a number of community-based micro hydro projects are being executed with the help of the Agha Khan Foundation in Pakistan’s Northern Areas and NWFP. Within this region, out of a total of 137 micro-hydro plants, the AKRSP has established 28 micro-hydros with an installed capacity of 619kW. Initially, in 1986, these plants started as research and demonstration units. These projects were extended to Village Organizations (Vas) and became participatory projects. A Village Organization (Va) is a body of villagers who have organized themselves around a common interest.

After formation, each village organization signed a partnership with AKRSP to abide by all terms and conditions necessary for the village development. The entire responsibility of implementation was passed on to the vas. AKRSP provided the negotiated cost of the plants and technical input required during the construction period. All the vas completed the civil work of the plants. They purchased and transported machinery from other parts of Pakistan. The va members provided subsidized or free unskilled labour and locally produced building material.

Pakistan’s current installed capacity is around 19,845 MW, of which around 20% is hydroelectric. Much of the rest is thermal, fueled primarily by gas and oil. Per capita energy consumption of the country is estimated at 14 million Btu, which is about the same as India’s but only a fraction of other industrializing economies in the region such as Thailand and Malaysia, according to the US Dept of Energy 2006 report. To put it in perspective, the world average per capita energy use is about 65 million BTUs and the average American consumes 352 million BTUs.

Posted on January 5, 2016 in 2nd Year 2011 Karachi Board Past Papers

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