SECTION”A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) Cape Horn is in:
* South America
* North America
(ii) The Great Lakes are in:
* North America
(iii) This is the basic food of fish:
* none of these
(iv) These countries have low birth rate:
* none of these
(v) The number of climatic regions in Pakistan is:
(vi) The biggest barrage of Pakistan is:
* Taunsa barrage
* Jinnah barrage
* Guddu barrage
* Sukkur barrage
(vii) Siachin Glacier is in:
(viii) CNG means:
* Carbonized Neutral Gas
* Carbon Natural Gas
* Compressed Natural Gas
* Carbon National Gas
(ix) This is built on river Indus:
* Mangla Dam
* Warsak Dam
* Hub Dam
* Tarbela Dam
(x) In U.S.A., the approximate percentage of work force engaged in primary activities is:
(xi) This has 100%Urban population:
(xii) Monsoon forests are mainly found in:
* East Asia
(xiii) This percentage of the earth is covered by land:
(xiv) Construction is an example of the following commercial activities: .
(xv) On global level, population wise, Pakistan ranks:
SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
2. Attempt any Five of the following.
(i) What is the major difference between economic and commercial activities?
ANSWER: Please see Q.2(ii) of 2012 Regular
(ii) Explain the role of secondary activities in the growth of developed countries.
ANSWER: Secondary activity occurs when value is added to raw materials produced in the primary sector e.g. Ore is changed into steel or leather is made into shoes. secondary activities include all types of the manufacturing industry e.g. furniture, paper, metal products, food, equipment, beverages and it includes the generation of electricity, construction and home industries. Developing economies will, in a lot of cases, have plenty of raw materials that developed countries will want; this will mean that there is much exploitation of natural resources with as little concern for resources, the environment, health and safety and overall long term planning. In the recent past, large economies such as China have invested large amounts of cash into these economies in order to have first opportunities on the countries’ natural resources for their own economies.
(iii) Comment. ‘Farming is not practiced in Polar region.
ANSWER: Please see Q.2(iii) of 2012 Regular
(iv) Write a note on highly populated region of the world.
ANSWER: Population of the world is increasing day by day and as per the latest estimates the world population in standing close to 6.77 billion.
Most populated countries map is a representation of the top 10 countries contributing the most towards this population explosion.
Map of most populated countries indicates that China with a total population of 1,335,962,133 China contributes 20% towards the world population. In the list of most populated countries, china takes the first spot. As per the stats on the map, India with a total population of 1,161,620,000, United States with a total population of 306,168,000, Indonesia with a total population of 229,850′;000 and Brazil with a total population of 190,984,000 have taken the spot of second to fifth respectively. Map of most populated countries also indicates that Russia has the lowest population density and Bangladesh has the highest population density in this list of top 10 most populated countries of the world.
• China 1,306,313,800
• India 1,080,264,400
• USA 295,734,100
• Indonesia 241,973,900
• Brazil 186,112,800
• Pakistan 162,419,900
• Bangladesh 144,319,600
• Russia 143,420,300
• Nigeria 128,772,000
• Japan 127,430,000
(v) Why are irrigated deserts important to produce good quality of cotton?
ANSWER: Many cotton regions are located in important river catchments. The Indus River valley in Pakistan, for example, incorporates one of the greatest irrigation systems in the world.
About 73% of cotton is produced in irrigated fields and only 27% under rain-fed conditions (freshwater is provided mainly by rain). The average yield of cotton is 854kg per ha for irrigated cotton and 391kg per ha for rain-fed cotton. In 1998 the world production of cotton amounted to 18.3 Mio tones of cotton lint and today, 33 Mio hectares of land are given over to cotton plantations. Whereas the area of cotton plantations has remained more or less constant since 1930, cotton production has tripled in the last 70 years.
(vi) Write basic function of a fertilizer.
ANSWER: Please see Q.2(i) of 2012 Regular
(vii) Why is commerce developed between various regions or countries?
ANSWER: The number of Internet users around the world has been steadily growing and this growth has provided the impetus and the opportunities for global· and regional commerce. However with Internet, different characteristics of the local environment, both infrastructural and socioeconomic, have created a significant level of variation in the acceptance and growth of commerce in different regions of the world. Over time, various studies have been conducted and models have been developed to identify diffusion of commerce in different environments.
(viii) ‘Cheap labour is one of the major factors for tea plantation.” Comment.
The tea industry in Indiais one of the oldest industries and one of the largesf employers in the organized sector. Over 12 hundred thousand permanent and almost the same number of casual and seasonal, workers are employed in the tea industry. Over 50 per cent of the workers, and in some operations like tea plucking, over 80 per cent of the workers, are women.
Over 90 per cent of the tea workers are either Scheduled Tribes or Scheduled Castes – the lowest in the caste, ethnicity, class and resource hierarchy. Most of the families of the workers have been forcibly or fraudulently brought to the tea gardens several generations ago. The work of tea workers is arduous in addition to being low paid and insecure. Tea pickers are on their feet all day with heavy baskets on their backs, often on uneven terrain and in harsh weather conditions. Injuries are common, as are respiratory and waterborne diseases. There is often exposure to pesticides and insecticides, which the ILO cites as one of the major health and safety hazards tea workers face.
3. Answer any 4 part questions.
(i) ‘Coastal areas record lower temperature in summer and higher in winter as compared to inner areas.’ Comment.
ANSWER: Please see Q.2(iv) of 2012 Regular
(ii) List any four soils their areas found in the Indus plain
ANSWER: It is also true that Pakistan’s soil can be classified regionally, or according to where it is found in the county. From that perspective, there are also six soil types:
1. Indus basin soils: The soils found along the current course of the Indus River
2. Bongar Soils: These soils are found in the historic Indus plain and are the best soils for agriculture.
3. Khaddar Soils: Also found along Pakistan’s rivers is this soil. It formed when, every year during flood, a new layer of salty clay was deposited.
4. Indus Delta Soils: These soils cover the current Indus River delta. Most of this soil is very clayey and was developed under seasonal floodwaters.
(iii) Comment. ‘There is a great potential for the production of hydroelectric power in the north of Pakistan.
ANSWER: In particular, one of the main goals is to take greater advantage of the massive hydroelectric power potential in the northern regions of Pakistan, which has been largely unexploited to date. For this purpose KfW Entwicklungsbank has been supporting the construction of a hydroelectric power station in Keyal Khwar since 2010. The new plant is intended to close at least part of the energy gap in the future. With an output of 122 MW, the hydroelectric power station will represent the biggest (also from a financial point of view) DC project in Pakistan. No other current German DC project in Pakistan is·more substantial in financial terms: KfW Entwicklungsbank will contribute some ·97 million EUR towards the financing of the project over a period of six years, which represents almost half of the total amount.
(i ) ‘CNG has opened new opportunities of employment in Paklsfan.’ Comment.
ANSWER: Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a substitute for gasoline (petrol) or diesel fuel. The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) sector of Pakistan by end of 2007 has attracted over Rs 70 billion investments during the last few years as’a result of liberal and encouraging policies of the government. Presently, more than 2,700 CNG stations are operating in the country in 85 cities and towns, and 1000 more would be setup in the next three years. It has provided employment to above 30,000 people in Pakistan. Over 2 million vehicles were converted to CNG as of march 2009, showing an increase of 35 percent yearly. On average 29,167 vehicles are being converted to CNG every month.
The CNG was replacing at least 6.12 billion liters of petrol every year and saving foreign exchange to the tune of billions of dollars. The CNG sector pays 24 percent sales tax and 4 percent withholding tax to the government.
(v) Write the names of any four (western) right bank tributaries of river Indus.
ANSWER: The Indus River is a major river which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through China and India. Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Satluj. Its principal right bank tributaries Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Gomal and Kurram. Beginning at the heights of the world in a spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside.
(vi) Discuss ‘Road transport is more effective than Railways in Pakistan.’
ANSWER: Over 90 percent of Pakistan’s freight and passenger traffic travels by road for at least two reasons. Firstly, the economy and reliability of road transport has increased very rapidly in recent years as better roads and improved vehicle performance have revolutionized overland transport. Secondly, on many routes this is the only feasible method of mechanized transport.
Pakistan Railways network has been deteriorating over the years for a variety of reasons. Firstly, road rather than railway construction has received more emphasis in national development plans, reflecting considerations of comparative advantages of the two alternative=systems. Secondly, since Railways received less attention ,in national plans, therefore, inadequate funding for operation and maintenance of the railway system led to its serious deterioration in services. Operational inefficiency, over-staffing and mismanagement are yet other reasons for the gradual decay of Pakistan Railways.
(vii) What is a dry port? Name any four dry ports of Pakistan.
ANSWER: A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations.
At present, there are six dry ports running under the management of Pakistan Railways:
• Lahore Dry Port Established in 1973
• Karachi Dry Port Established in 1974
• Quetta Dry Port Established in 1984
Peshawar Dry Port Established in 1986
SECTION C (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
4. Attempt any two part questions.
(i) Describe the Geo-economical conditions for the cultivation of wheat in temperate Grasslands. List four main importers of wheat from this region.
ANSWER: Physical and economic conditions for wheat. Wheat is tolerant of considerable variation in temperature and rainfall. When it grows in the hot and fairly dry summer conditions of the temperate grasslands and in the hot dry Mediterranean lands it is called hard wheat, rich in protein and excellent for bread making. Wheat may be grown with a mean annual rainfall of less than 38.1 cm and under dry farming methods with as Iowa rainfall as 20.3 cm. Soft wheat is grown under moist summer conditions. Soft wheat is suitable for cakes and biscuits and is widely cultivated in western Europe. Though wheat is found to be cultivated in widely differing physical conditions, it thrives best in the regions with:
(a) a fairly stiff, preferably loamy and non-acid soils.
(b) Mild moist weather during germination and early growing season with a rainfall of 50 cm to 100 cm.
(c) A temperature of at least 16°C and bright sunshine for ripening.
(d) A frost-free growing period of approximately 100 days.
(e) Level or rolling lands to facilitate mechanized operations provided wheat is grown under extensive conditions. So far as wheat farming is concerned economic factors are of no little consequence. Variation in economic conditions greatly affects the productivity. The factors, which have caused great expansion [n wheat producing regions, are:
(a) Introduction of farm machinery like tractor, harvesters, winnowers, threshers, elevators etc.
(b) Adoption of scientific methods.
(c) Scientific treatment of seeds, such as verbalization.
(d) Improvement in transport.
Top four IMPORTERS.
1. Egypt 9,500 (Metric thousand tons.)
2. Iran 8,500
3. Brazil 6,500
4. Algeria 5,600
(ii) Discuss the role of the Middle East in the production of natural oil and name four major exporting countries of this region.
ANSWER: Since the 1930s the Middle East has emerged as the world’s most important source of energy and the key to the stability of global economy. This tumultuous region produces today 37 percent of the world’s oil and 18 percent of its gas. When it comes to reserves, the Persian Gulf is king. It is home to 65 percent of global oil proven reserves and 45 percent of its natural gas. The Middle East also controls a significant portion of the hydrocarbons that are yet to be discovered. According to the U.S. Geological Survey over 50 percent of the undiscovered reserves of oil and 30 percent of gas are concentrated in the region primarily in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE and Libya.
The concentration of so much of the world’s hydrocarbons in this geographical location means that as long as the modern economy depends on the supply of oil and natural gas, the Middle East will play a key role in global politic’s and economy. As it is, most of the world’s countries are heavily dependent on Persian Gulf oil. In 2006, the Middle East supplied 22 percent of U.S. imports, 36 percent of OECD Europe’s, 40 percent of China’s, 60 percent of India’s, and 80 percent of Japan’s and South Korea’s. Even oil- rich Canada is dependent on the Middlle East. Forty five percent of Canada’s oil imports originate in the region. Barring a major technological transformation, global dependency on the Middle East is only going to grow. According to the International Energy Agency, from now to 2030, world oil consumption will rise by about 60 percent. Transportation will be the fastest growing oil-consuming sector. By 2030, the number of cars will increase to well over 1.25 billion from approximately 700 million today. Consequently, global consumption of gasoline could double. The two countries with the highest rate of growth in oil use are China and India, whose combined populations account for a third of humanity. In the next two decades, China’s oil consumption is expected to grow at a rate of 7.5 percent per year and India’s 5.5 percent. (Compare to a 1-3 percent growth for the industrialized countries). As a result, by 2030 Asia will import 80 percent of its total oil needs and 80 percent of this total will come from the Persian Gulf. The reason why Persian Gulf countries’ share of the world’s energy pie is likely to increase has to do not only with geology but also with resource management. While non-Middle East countries pump at full speed, Middle East producers, many of them members of’ the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), stick to a quota and produce well under their capacity. This means that non-OPEC oil is running out almost twice as fast as OPEC’s. Exxon Mobil Corporation’ has estimated that non- OPEC production–this includes Russia’ and West Africa will peak within a decade, making recoverable oil left outside the Middle East world scarcer and scarcer. On the other hand, the reserve-to-production ratio among Persian Gulf producers ranges between 80 and 100 years, allowing those countries to stay in the race decades after their competitors have depleted their reserves. This is likely to lead to global dependence on the region of unprecedented scale with considerable’ implications for global security and economy; as the Chief Economist of the International Energy Agency put it: “We are ending up with 95 percent of the world relying for its economic well being on decisions made by five or six countries in the Middle East.”
Uncertainty about, the political stability of key energy producers like Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq. The energy security and national security problems resulting from reliance on a single energy resource that is primarily located in such a volatile area are likely to be intensified as demand for oil grows. The region’s problems will no doubt impact not only the world’s economy and security but also consuming nations’ attitudes and policies toward the region’s producers as well as toward each other.
Four major Oil exporting countries are:
1. United States 20.59 (million of barrels per day)
2. China 7.27
3. Japan 5.22
4. Russia 3.10
(iii) What is meant by population transition? With the help of a diagram, state different stages of population growth.
ANSWER: Please see Q.4(iii) of 2012 Regular
(iv) Give an account of the distribution of Iron and Steel industry in China and U.S.A. Locate the major reserves of these countries.
China’s steel industry has grown significantly since the mid-1990s. China is now the world’s largest steelmaker and steel consumer. In 2009, China produced over 567 million tons of crude steel, nearly half of the world’s steel. That was 10 times the U.S. production.
The majority of Chinese steel has been used to meet domestic demand in China. However, as its steel production continues to grow, overcapacity is becoming a major concern to Chinese industrial policy makers, as well as steelmakers outside China. Although industry statistics indicate that the Chinese steel industry is not export-oriented, its consistently high output keeps U.S. steelmakers concerned that excess Chinese steel might overwhelm the global market once domestic demand is adequately met. These concerns become increasingly acute as the United States and the rest of the world are in the middle of a slow recovery from the economic recession started in December 2007.
The Chinese steel industry is highly fragmented, with more than 1,000 steel producers, which makes the domestic market highly competitive and difficult to control. Its growth also faces constraints such as dependence on imported iron ore and high energy consumption. The Chinese government has shown interest in stepping up its efforts to rein in steel overcapacity and to consolidate and restructure the steel industry. However, it remains to be seen if the government’s efforts and measures are to produce sufficient or meaningful results.
The possibility of surplus steel from Chinese steel producers; their alleged questionable, if not illegal, trade practices; and the possibility of Chinese direct investment in the U.S. steel sector are all of major concern to the steelmakers in the United States. Steelmakers in the/United States believe that China’s government subsidization of its steel (in the form of an undervalued currency, export rebates and/or quotas, subsidized financing, relatively weak environmental, labor, and safety regulations, etc.) is one of the key issues affecting the health of the U.S. steel sector. There have been multiple anti-dumping and countervailing cases in the United States against certain Chinese steel products, which suggests that U.S. steel producers and trade officials are increasingly using trade remedies to enforce international trade laws. The rise of China’s steel sector, along with other manufacturing industries, presents issues beyond.
The rise of the steel industry in the United States drove America’s growth as a world economic power. Although ironwork had been established in the North American colonies shortly after European settlement began, it wasn’t until the 19th century, when technological advances decreased the cost and increased the quality, that steel manufacturing became a dominant industry. With the abundant iron ore deposits around Lake’Superior, the rich coal veins of Pennsylvania and the easy access to cheap water transportation routes on the Great Lakes, the Midwest became the center of American heavy industry. In the years after the Civil War, the American steel industry grew with astonishing speed as the nation’s economy expanded to become the largest in the world. Between 1880 and the turn of the century, steel production increased from 1.25 million tons to more than 10 million tons. By 1910 America was producing more than 24 million tons, by far the greatest of any country.
A major shakeout of the industry ensued. By 1975 American steel production had plunged by 37 percent to only 89 million tons. The industry, however, still employed 457,000 workers at very’ high wages. By 1988 production had rebounded to 102,700,000 tons, but the number of steelworkers had declined to 169,000. Annual steel production per worker had more than tripled in thirteen years. American steel was once again competitive on world markets. .But steel would never again hold the central place in the economy it had held for a hundred years. The age of steel had ended; the age of the computer had begun.
5. Answer any One part question.
(i) Explain the horizontal and vertical growth of a crop and list the main Cotton-producing areas in Pakistan.
In photography, the simplest decision can sometimes help or weaken the impression of an image. How we choose to frame or crop our subject affects the overall composition and the effect it has on the viewer. Horizontal and vertical formats are the two most common ways to frame an image although interest in the square crop seems to be on the rise.
Horizontal framing (landscape format) is ideal when:
the subject is wider than it is taller, such as boats, bridges, or rows of houses. there is implied movement from side to side, such as a motion blur shot of a ball rolling from the left to the right of the frame.
landscape (or seascape) panoramas, especially these that show horizon lines.
Vertical framing (portrait format) is ideal when:
-the subject is taller rather than it is wider.
-the subject is not just tall but also singular or few, such
as a solitary lamppost, a skyscraper or a person standing. A line” of people or a row of skyscrapers could benefit from a horizontal framing instead.
-implied’ movement is going upwards or downwards.
-you want focus to just be on the subject since this orientation removes peripheral vision
For budding photographers, horizontal framing (a.k.a landscape format) is more often used than vertical (probably because it’s just more convenient to hold the camera in its horizontal position rather than having to tilt it sideways.) However, using vertical framing can alter the impression of the same scene. Although the final framing can be decided in post processing by cropping or rotating the image, try to make your decision before you press that shutter button so you will not end up having to cut off large unnecessary areas in the image.
Following are the areas of Pakistan where cotton are produce.
(iii) Tando Allah Yar
(v) Mir Pur Khas
(x) Nowshero Feroze
(iv) Rahim Yar Khan
(ii) State the role of canals in the irrigation system of Pakistan and also explain the importance of link canals.
Irrigation is the man-made supply of water to the land to encourage vegetation. It is a substitute for inadequate or erratic rainfall and is extremely essential for arid regions where there are no rivers and also in humid regions to improve crop output. In Pakistan, 75% of the agricultural land is under irrigation. Three major water sources in Pakistan are rain water, ground water and rivers.
Irrigation system is not something new. Since olden days, people had devised various methods to water their fields. Some traditional methods of irrigation are Persian Wheel, Charsa and Shaduf. Karez is another traditional irrigation system practiced in Baluchistan only. Karez is a horizontal canal located mainly on the foot hills and it brings the under ground water to the surface. Modern advancements in the irrigation system are the perennial canals and tube wells.
Pakistan is basically a dry country with the River Indus and its tributaries being the main source of water supply. Dams both larg’e and small and barrages have been built on the Indus and its tributaries. Large dams such as Tarbela Dam and Mangla Dam are multipurpose plans which not only store water, irrigate lands but also generate hydro electricity. Small dams like Khanpur Dam, Rawal Dam and Hub Dam supply water for agriculture, industrial and domestic purpose and act as a reservoir as well. A hilly terrain is required to build a dam. Barrages on the other hand are built on flat places they also supply water for irrigation purpose and industrial and domestic use. Some -barraqes are Sukkur Barrage, Guddu Barrage, Kotri Barrage, and Chashma Barrage.
Canals are taken out from rivers, dams and barrages. Pakistan has one of the largest canal irrigation systems in the world. The Inundation canals are taken from rivers and they receive water only when the water level in the rivers is high such as during floods. The perennial canals are taken from dams and barrages and supply water to the fields through out the year. In Pakistan there are 3 large dams, 85 small dams, 19 barrages, 12 inter link canals, 45 canals and 0.7 million tube wells to meet the commercial, domestic and irrigational needs of the country.
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The most obvious advantage of surface irrigation is that it is the most widely understood method of irrigation due to its popularity. Surface irrigation conserves water, as it applies water only down to the depths required to refill the root zone. It is especially’ handy in cases where there are water shortages. Surface irrigation is comparatively cheap to develop, and requires minimal investment on the part of the farmer. Surface irrigation is not affected by climatic and water quality characteristics.
The major disadvantage of surface irrigation is that it tends to lead to water logging and soil salinity if there are no provisions for adequate. drainage. Another disadvantage is that it tends to be labor intensive.
The most obvious advantage of surface irrigation is that it is the most widely understood method of irrigation due to its popularity. Surface irrigation conserves water, as it applies water only down to the depths required to refill the root zone. It is especially handy in cases where there are water shortages. Surface irrigation is comparatively cheap to develop, and requires minimal investment on the part of the farmer. Surface irrigation is not affected by climatic and water quality characteristics. The major disadvantage of surface irrigation is that it tends to. lead to water logging and soil salinity if there are no .provisions for adequate drainage. Another disadvantage is that it tends to be labor intensive.