SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) Rubber is planted in:
* Mountainous region
* Polar region
* Temperate region
* Equatorial region
(ii) It is the biggest railway junction of Pakistan:
(iii) The four main rivers of Punjab meet at:
* Mithan Kot
(iv) Commercial grain farming is practiced in the grasslands of:
* Frigid region
* Equatorial region
* Temperate region
* Tundra region
(v) Winter rain fall in Pakistan is caused by:
* Tropical cyclones
* Western depression
(vi) Demographically, the biggest city of the world is:
* New York
(vii) The total land area of all the continents is approximately this part of the world:
(viii) There are twelve crossing points on the border of Pakistan and:
(ix) This is not a grassland:
(x) They have developed the art of hunting to a high state of differentiation:
* European hunters
* American Cowboys
(xi) It is the largest country by industrial output:
* The USA
(xii) Monsoon forests are mainly found in:
* East Asia
(xiii) This country produces 99.5% of its power requirements through hydro electricity:
(xiv) This indian region is famous for tea plantation:
* Hyderabad Decan
(xv) This type of climate is required for sugarcane cultivation
* Cold dry
* Cold Humid
* Hot Equatorial
* Humid Tropical
SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
2. Answer any Five part questions.
(i) Explain the importance of Commercial Geography for an industrialist.
ANSWER: Commercial geography is geography with a particular concern for the locations of goods and the methods and paths by which they are transported. This kind of geography would be important for industrialists to be aware of because it directly concerns their business. They would need to know where the raw materials are that help them manufacture their goods, the best paths to get them to factories, and the best routes to get finished products out to the markets.
(ii) Define growth rate of population. How is it calculated?
ANSWER: Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals of any species in a population using “per unit time” for measurement.
How is it calculated:
A particular city has a population of 800,000 in 1990 and a population of 1,500,000 in 2008. To find the growth rate of the population in this city, do the following:
Growth Rate = [(1,500,000 – 800,000)/800,000] * 100
Growth Rate = 87.5 percent
Average Annual Growth Rate = 87.5 percent/18 years
Average Annual Growth Rate = 4.86 percent.
(iii) Write a note on interrelation of Commercial Activities.
ANSWER: Please see Q.4 (i) of 2014 Private
(iv) How does Intensive Commercial Agriculture differ from Extensive Grain production?
ANSWER: Intensive agriculture or intensive farming is an approach to farming in which the goal is to get a yield which is as high as possible using techniques which are geared towards maximizing the amount of crops which can be.grown on land, the number of growing cycles per year, and so forth. Extensive farming or extensive agriculture is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labour, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed. Extensive farming most commonly refers to sheep and . cattle farming in areas with low agricultural productivity, but can also refer to large-scale growing of wheat, barley and other grain crops in areas like the Murray-Darling Basin.
(v) The Eskimo hunter are distinguished for special aptitudes and methods. Comment.
ANSWER: The hypothesis that the ecological and cultural characteristics of Eskimo society lead to village Eskimo children having greater ability in visual memory than urban Caucasian children has been studied. A test of visual memory was given to 501 urban Caucasian and 125 village Eskimo children. Village Eskimo children demonstrated significantly higher levels of visual. memory. Visual memory was also found to increase significantly with age. A follow-up questionnaire study indicated that about 65 per cent of teac Canal system on the right (west) bank of the Indus. hers in Eskimo villages noted the unusually high ability of Eskimo students in recalling visual detail or mentioned their high performance in tasks depending partly upon this ability.
(vi) Great Britain is the pioneer in textile manufacturing. Comment.
ANSWER: Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centered on Greater Manchester, in southern Lancashire and the small towns both sides of the Pennies. The Prior to the 18th century, the manufacture of goods was performed on a limited scale by individual workers, in the premises where they lived – and goods were transported around the country by horse, or by river. Rivers navigation and some contour following canals had been constructed in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century, artisans were inventing ways to become more productive. Silk, Wool, Fustian, the traditional fibers, were being eclipsed by cotton which was became the most important textile. This set the foundations for the changes. right though textile industry.
Innovations in carding & spinning enabled by advances in cast iron ever larger spinning mules and water frames were constructed. They were housed in water driven mills on numerous streams. The need for more power stimulated the production of steam driven beam engines, and then relative mill engines. The line shaft transmitted this power to each floor of the mill. Surplus power capacity encouraged the construction of ever more sophisticated power looms working in weaving sheds. The scale of production in the mill towns round Manchester created a need for a commercial structure; for a cotton exchange and warehousing. These earned Manchester the sobriquet Cotton polls.
(vii) The total crop duration of spring wheat is lesser than winter wheat. Write two major reasons in support of this statement.
ANSWER: Winter wheat acreage has always been much smaller than that of spring wheat in Minnesota. From 1999 to 2004, the winter wheat acreage in Minnesota varied from 15,000 to 60,000 acres. The primary constraint to winter wheat production in Minnesota is winter kill. Newer varieties and production practices have’ reduced this risk, making winter wheat a more viable option in the cropping systems of the state.
The benefits of winter wheat include:
1. A higher yield potential than spring wheat
2. Greater profitability as it often requires less inputs than spring wheat
3. More efficient use of labor & machinery as it is planted & harvested during periods with few competing field activities.
4. Establishment of a cover to reduce wind & water erosion
5. Establishment of a cover for wildlife in fall & early spring
(viii) Write a note on Solar energy technology and its types.
ANSWER: Solar energy, quite simply, is energy that comes from the sun. But there are now many types of solar energy technology focused on making use of that energy and turning it into usable electricity or heat (or both).
Solar energy technologies use the sun’s energy and light to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and even cooling, for homes, businesses, and industry.
There are a variety of technologies that have been developed to take advantage of solar energy.
Solar Energy Technologies:
Producing electricity directly from sunlight.
Solar Hot Water
Heating water with solar energy.
Using the sun’s heat to produce electricity.
Passive Solar Heating and Day lighting
Using solar energy to heat and light buildings.
Solar Process Space Heating and Cooling
Industrial and commercial uses of the sun’s heat.
OR List the major Fishing grounds of the world and describe anyone fishing ground of the U.S.A.
ANSWER: MAJOR FISHING GROUNDS OF THE WORLD The major commercial fishing grounds are located in the cool waters of the northern hemisphere in comparatively high. latitudes. Commercial fishing is little developed in the tropics or in the southern hemisphere.
The North-East Atlantic Region
The North-West Atlantic Region
The north-west Atlantic
The North-West Pacific Region
This town’s name should be your first clue as to why attracts sportsmen the way a spawning run draws bears. Located right on the Salmon River-and bordering millions of acres of public hunting ground, including the largest wilderness area in the Lowe 48 (the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness)-Salmon has, well, everything. The Salmon and its tributaries offer world-class fishing for trout, steel head, and other species year-round. On the crags and benches above the Salmon and other nearby rivers, wing shooters chase chukar and Huns, while at higher elevations blue and spruce grouse predominate.
The big-g~me scene has changed in Salmon with the resurgence of wolves. But trophy elk, mule deer, and whitetails are still accessible, and the hunting for bears and mountain lions is second to none.
3. Answer any Four part questions.
(i) The monsoon and the western disturbances are two main factors which effect the climate of Pakistan. Comment.
ANSWER: The monsoon and the Western Disturbance are the two main factors which alter the weather over Pakistan; otherwise, Continental air prevails for rest of the year. Following are the main factors that influence the weather over Pakistan.
* Western Disturbances mostly occur during the winter months and cause light to moderate showers in southern parts of the country while moderate to heavy showers with heavy snowfall in the northern parts of the country. These westerly waves are robbed of most of the moisture by the time they reach Pakistan.
* Fog occurs during the winter season and remains for weeks in upper Sindh, central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa & Punjab. * Southwest Monsoon occurs in summer from the month of June till September in almost whole Pakistan excluding western Baluchistan, FATA, Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan.
Monsoon rains bring much awaited relief from the scorching summer heat. These monsoon rains are quite heavy by nature and can cause significant flooding, even severe flooding if they interact with westerly waves in the upper parts of the country.
* Tropical Storms usually form during the summer months from late April till June and then from late September till November. They affect the coastal localities of the country.
* Dust storms occur during summer months with peak in May and June, They are locally known as Andhi. These dust storms are quite violent. Dust storms during the early summer indicate the arrival of the monsoons while dust storms in the autumn jndlcate the arrival of winter.
* Heat waves occur during May and June, especially in southern Punjab, central Baluchistan and interior Sindh.
* Thunderstorms most .commonly occur in northern Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Azad Kashmir.
* Continental air prevails during the period when there is no precipitation in the country.
(ii) Describe Canal system on the right (west) bank of the Indus.
ANSWER: The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through western Tibet & northern India. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit and Baltistan and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the riyer is 3,180 km (1,980 mi). It is Pakistan’s longest river.
The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands at around 207 km3 (50 cu mi), making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary inLadakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, the Jhelum, the Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej. Its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal and the Kurram. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plain sand arid countryside.
(iii) Why is Pakistan important in respect of its marine location.
ANSWER: Pakistan is located between 23 degrees.30 north to 37 degrees North Latitude and 61 degrees east to 77 degrees East Longitude. China lies in the north of Pakistan while Afghanistan and Iran are in the West of it. India lies in the East and in the South is Arabian Sea.
The Importance of Location:
The location of Pakistan is not only unique in the world but of special importance in South Asia. Pakistan links the east with the west. Some important neighboring countries of Pakistan are as under. China, Afghanistan, central Asian Islamic countries, Iran, India.
(iv) Although contributing a lesser share in GDP, the primary sector plays art important role in Pakistan’s economy. Comment.
ANSWER: Primary commercial activities like hunting, fishing, mining, animal keeping, agricultural and lumbering have great and appreciable share in the Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Pakistan. Basically Pakistan is an agricultural country so GDP consist of greater part of primary commercial activities, which are produce in Pakistan and all the above primary activities are greatly done on rendered in Pakistan, therefore these primary activities have played a vital role in G.D.P of Pakistan
(v) Write a note on any One of the following:
(a) The functions of NHA
(b) Makran Coastal Highway
(a) The National Highway Authority is responsible for building & maintaining highways and motorways in Pakistan. The objectivE! of the NHA is to “plan, promote and organize programmes for construction, development, operation, repairs & maintenance of National Highways, Motorways & strategic roads.
(b) Makran Coastal Highway is a 653 km-Iong coastal highway along Pakistan’s Arabian Sea coastline. It is a part of Pakistan’s National Highways network. It runs primarily through Baluchistan province between Karachi and Gwadar, passing near the port towns of Ormara and Pasni. The official and technical designation of the Makran Coastal Highway is N10, which is the abbreviation for National Highway 10.
(vi) Give any four Government oriented solutions for agricultural problems in Pakistan.
ANSWER: Solutions for Agricultural Problems In Pakistan:
(i) Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in Pakistan. Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income but not without devising limit of land holding. Otherwise it would directly affect poor farmers.
(ii) Federal Seed Certification and Federal Seed Registration is approved but it should take responsible steps in approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds of seeds. Specially, those seeds should be banned which can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are of cotton mainly. International seed makers are providing those seeds which are not successful in our country as these seeds are not tested on our soil.
(iii) A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focused on.
(iv) Small farmer must be focused. The major problems of small farmers should be solved first.
(v) What is a Pass? List any two passes and their connective areas.
(vii) What is a pass? List any two passes and their connective area.
ANSWER: A mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. If following the lowest possible route, a pass is locally the highest point on that route. Since many of .the world’s mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war, and migration.
Chillinji Pass 17,503 ft
Chilinji Glacier, Karamber
Daintar Pass 16,390 ft
Daintar Nala, Lower Nagar
OR Bongar soil is the best soil for agriculture in the country. Comment.
ANSWER: Bongar Soils Bongar soils cover a vast area of Indus plain. The area includes most of the part of Punjab, Peshawar, Mardan, Bannu and Kachhi plain. A major part of the province of sindh is also comprised of these soils. Some of these soils are rich and irrigated give very good production. Usually these soils ate far from the present rivers beds.
SECTION C (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTION)
4. Answer any Two part questions.
(i)(a)Write a note on the history of world population growth with special reference to ‘Three Revolutions’.
ANSWER: Human population has grown very slowly for most of its existence on earth. Scientists currently estimate that modern human beings (Homo sapiens) evolved roughly 130,000 to 160,000 years ago. Many threats, from diseases to climate fluctuations, kept life expectancy short and death rates high in pre-industrial society, so it took until 1804 for the human population to reach one billion. From that point forward, however, population growth accelerated very quickly Table 1.
World population milestones. Source:
United Nations Secretariat, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, The World At Six Billion.
World population reached: Year Time to add 1 billion
1 billion 1804
2 billion 1927 123 years
3 billion 1960 33 years
4 billion 1974 14 years
5 billion 1987 13 years
6 billion 1999 12 years
Through the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, life expediencies were low in Western Europe and the United States. Thousands of people died from infectious diseases such as typhoid and cholera, which spread rapidly in the crowded, filthy conditions that were common in early factory towns and major cities, or were weakened by poor nutrition. But from about 1850 through 1950, a cascade of health and safety advances radically improved living conditions in industrialized nations. Major milestones included:
* improving urban sanitation and waste removal;
* improving the quality of the water supply and expanding access to it;
* forming public health boards to detect illnesses and quarantine the sick;
* researching causes and means of transmission of infectious diseases;
* developing vaccines and antibiotics;
* adopting workplace safety laws and limits on child labor; and
* Promoting nutrition through steps such as fortifying milk, breads, and cereals with vitamins.
By the mid-20th century, most industrialized nations had passed through the .demographic transition. As health technologies were transferred to developing nations, many of these countries entered the mortality transition and their population swelled. The world’s population growth rate peaked in the late 1960s at just over 2 percent per year (2.5 percent in developing countries).
Demographers currently project that Earth’s population will reach just over nine billion by 2050,with virtually all growth occurring in developing countries (Fig. 1). Future fertility trends will strongly affect the course of population growth. This estimate assumes that fertility will decline from 2.6 children per woman in 2005 to slightly over 2 children per woman in 2050. If the rate falls more sharply, to 1.5 children per woman, world population would be 7.7 billion in 2050, whereas a slower decline to 2.5 children per woman would increase world population to 10.6 billion by 2050.
Source: 2004. United Nations, World Population Prospects. Many people interpret forecasts like this to mean that population growth is out of control. In fact, as noted above, world population growth rates peaked in the late 1960s and have declined sharply in the past four decades (Fig. 2). The world’s total population is still rising because of population momentum stemming from large increases that occurred in developing countries in the 1950s and early 1960s. But fertility rates are falling as many developing countries pass through the demographic transition, thanks to factors that Include lower infant mortality rates; expanding rights, education, and labor market opportunities for women; and increased access to family planning services.
World population growth in the 21st century will be different from previous decades in several important ways. First, humans are living longer and having fewer children, so there will be older people (age 60 and above) than very young people (age zero to four). Second, nearly all population growth will take place in urban areas. Third, fertility rates will continue to decline.
(b) Draw a diagram in support of your answer.
(ii) Describe any four of the following:
(a) Rubber plantation in South East Asia
(b) Wheat trade of the USA.
(c) By products of rice crop
(d) Climate for tea cultivation
(e) Socio economic factors for sugarcane
(f) Importance of irrigation for cotton crop.
(a) Rubber plantation in South East Asia:
More than 500,000 hectares (1.2 million acres) may have already been converted to rubber plantations in the uplands of China, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar. And researchers predict the area of land dedicated to rubber and other farming systems could more than double or triple by 2050, replacing lands currently occupied by evergreen broad leaf trees and secondary vegetation growing in areas subjected to slash-and-burn farming.
That could result in a significant reduction in carbon biomass, desiccate the region’s water systems, and increase the risk of landslides through erosion, researchers from China, Singapore and the US warned in an essay in the journal Science.
“The unrestricted expansion of rubber in montane mainland southeast Asia could have devastating environmental effects,” wrote lead author Alan Ziegler pf the National University of Singapore. Ziegel and his colleagues warned “time is too short” to wait for results from studies aimed providing reliable assessments of the impact on water systems.
“A substantial increase in natural reserve areas could help to reduce the threats to biodiversity and carbon stocks,” they wrote. The authors also suggested promoting “diversified agroforestry systems in which cash crops such as rubber and oil palm play important roles, but are not planted as monocultures.
(b) Wheat trade of the USA:
U.S. wheat farmers produce a plentiful wheat crop each year allowing the United States to be the largest single exporter of wheat in the world. People around the world rely on the United States and a handful of other countries to supply the basic ingredient for their traditional wheat-based foods.
While world wheat trade is largely a commercial market, buyers expect wheat to be available when needed. The U.S. wheat industry recognized that this social contract exists and has invested much to earn the reputation as the world’s most reliable choice. U.S. Wheat Associates (USA) is dedicated to creating a level trade playing field that allows U.S. wheat producers to participate. in export markets worldwide. We offer analyses, perspectives, and recommendations on trade policy issues that potentially affect export market access and have the potential to impede sales. Although most USA activities are conducted overseas, market development programs begin in the United States, where government policy can affect the sales of millions of tons of wheat each year. USA supports wheat trade policies that provide for open and fair competition. USA regularly submits comments to the U.S. government on policies impacting wheat exports.
USA supports free trade through multilateral, regional, and bileteral trade agreements. USA believes that a comprehensive and ambitious WTO agreement is the best opportunity to achieve new global sales of U.S.-origin wheat. At the same time, we continue to support an aggressive bilateral and multilateral trade agenda based on the success of previous agreements for U.S. wheat exports such as NAFTA and CAFTA/DR. We support the immediate ratification of pending trade agreements with Colombia, Panama, and South Korea.
(c) By products of rice crop:
Rice by-products create many valuable and world while products. Rice hulls, rice bran, broken rice and rice straw are common ingredients in horticultural, livestock, industrial, household, and building and food products, Many breakfast and baby foods contain rice flour milled from broken rice grains.
Rice by-products are used extensively by Cop Rice the industry’s stock feed enterprises and the industry has invested millions of dollars in continuing research and development programs to find new applications for its byproducts.
Incorporating rice stubble and some surplus rice hulls into the soil after harvest also creates organic matter. It assists the soil and provides nutrients for future crops.
Other rice-related products are those produced with rice materials such as:
* Rice paper
* Rice cakes
* Rice flour
* Sake – rice drink
* Rice based beer
* Cat and pet litter
* Pet food
(d) Climate for tea cultivation:
Most of the tea cultivated in Japan use Chinese seeds. In Japan, the most Northern region where tea can grow is Akita prefecture, and then to south, tea can be cultivated all through to Okinawa prefecture. However, the most suitable condition of growing tea is average temperature between 12.5- 13 degrees Celsius or more, and in winter time, the temperature do not stay -15 degrees Celsius or less for a long hours, 1500 mm rains will be needed annually (especially between April to October, 1000 mm rains will be needed), Ph 4.5 to 5 and less acid soil with excellent drainage. Additional to the above requirement, fewer days of low temperature and brightly sunny days make extra fine tea. Kawane in Shizuoka, Uji in Kyoto, and Yame in Fukuoka are known for Ideal places for cultivating fine tea. 52% of tea estate and farms are located on the flat land and 48% are located on the hillside. Among those on the hillside, half of them are located on the hillside of more than 200 altitudes. Most of the farms located on the high altitudes are specializing in producing high quality tea. The farms located on the flat land tend to produce medium grade tea with low price.
(e) Socio economic factors for sugarcane cultivation:
Sugar cane is one of the main crops in the state of Tabasco, Mexico, with a planted area of 27,041 ha, contributing 4 % of the national sugar production and ranking third in acreage at national level. This research aimed to identify main socioeconomic and technological factors influencing yields in sugar cane at Benito Juarez sugar mill factory (BJSMF). A total of 150 growers were interviewed, whose information was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Relevant socioeconomic characteristics were age (51 % growers were 50 to 70 years old); school attendance (40 % coursed primary school); lack of family labor, among others. Relevant technological issues were the higher yields in a smaller area planted with variety MEX 79-431, mean yields ranged from 50 to 60 t ha-1, commonly applied fertilizers are based on the formula known as triple 17 by 30 % of growers and the 20-10-10 fertilizer mix is used by 26 %. The lack of technical advisory access was reported by 58 % of them.
(f) Importance of irrigation for cotton crop:
The majority of U.S. cotton (about 65%) is currently produced under non-irrigated conditions. In the South and the Southeast, non-irrigated cotton systems dominate, while in the arid West nearly all of the crop water requirements are met by irrigation water. With rising production costs and the devastating effect of drought on yield, adopting irrigation to supplement rainfall in the humid areas, and improving irrigation water management in the drier areas, is becoming increasingly essential to stay competitive.
Irrigation has economic benefits to the producer by increasing yield per unit land area, and benefits to society by providing a consistent and dependable source of food and fiber. Irrigation offers safeguards against poor crop performance and/or failure due to insufficient and/or untimely rainfall. Safeguarding against rainfall uncertainties is highly desirable in today’s competitive markets where substantial investment has been committed at cotton planting time. Irrigation also facilitates agro-chemical management through the use of fertigation and chemigation practices.
(iii)(a) Draw a chart to show the classification of commercial activities by level of activities.
Chart of Commercial Activities
1. Primary: Harvesting commodlties from nature (subsistence agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining)
2. Secondary: (a) Purposeful tending of crops and livestock (Commercial agriculture) (b) Increasing the value of commodities by changing their form (Manufacturing)
3. Tertiary: Services (Clerical, personal, business)
4. Quaternary: Financial, health and entertainment. Education, information and data processing services, middle management administrative services, Government bureaucrats.
5. Quandary: (a) High level managerial and executives administrative positions (public and private) (b) Scientific research and development services.
(a) Transportation and distribution services.
(b) Increasing the value of commodities by changing their location (freight, transportation)
(c) Exchange of services and ideas by telecommunication or face to face contact.
(d) Satisfying the needs of people by changing their location (Passenger transport)
(e) Warehousing and distribution functions
(f) Wholesale trade
(g) Retail trade
Use of commodities and services by human beings to satisfy needs and wants Entrepreneurship in emerging markets is distinctive from that practiced in more developed countries. Better understanding these distinctions is critical to private sector development in developing countries. Of particular interest are new and growth-oriented enterprises, which have a greater capacity to create sustainable economic growth than micro enterprises or long-established SMEs with limited growth prospects. The distinctions between growth-oriented entrepreneurs in developing and developed markets are rooted in the inefficiency of markets in many developing countries; but the response of entrepreneurs to these· inefficiencies is often surprising and counter intuitive. These findings call into question the policy approaches to entrepreneurship development often advocated.
While noting the possible lack of correlation between business environment and levels’ of growth-oriented entrepreneurship, we focus on three key distinctions: opportunity, financial resources, and apprenticeship and human resources. These distinctions suggest a rich research & policy reform agenda.
(b) How do the specific and relative locations affect the choices of commercial activities in a region?
The resources affect the choice of commercial activities of a region listed below:
1- Shape and Size of a country
3- Topography or Land form
9- Vegetation and Animals Life
(iv)(a) Write a note on fossil fuels as nonrenewable resources of energy. Also list the major world deposits of anyone of these.
The earth has a limited supply of oil, gas and coal at least in practical terms. It takes millions of years for the earth to transform dead organic material into these fossil fuels. The supply of fossil fuels we are using today come from organic materials buried generally at least 20 million years ago, and some that were buried more than 200 million years ago.
This is different from renewable materials, like wood, that can be planted again, so the supply can be renewed.
Fossil fuels are considered non-renewable sources of energy because when they are burnt, they are finished. When the last barrel of oil has been pumped out of the ground there is no more. It is non-renewable. Similarly with coal and natural gas.
The origins of most fossil fuels are over 60 million years old, from the dinosaur age (Mesozoic Era) and the carbon age (within the Paleozoic Era). When that supply is gone it is gone forever so it is a non-renewable resource. Renewable fuel grows back or cannot be depleted.
* Wind can’t be stopped it will always blow.
* Trees grow back if we allow them.
* Oil is under the ground and once it is gone it is gone. Because fossil fuels take hundreds of millions of years to form under the Earth’s surface. It will take another million years for more to be produced, so we only have a limited supply.
Eventually, more fossils will be made, but by then we will have run out by how much we use them now. If we stop using them so much than we won’t die like we are going to. So essentially, all fossil fuels are considered nonrenewable.
(b) Explain any Two of the following:
* Geothermal energy
* Wind energy
(i) Geothermal energy:
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter. The geothermal energy of the Earth’s crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the. core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface. At the core of the Earth, thermal energy is created, by radioactive decay and temperatures may reach over 5000 °C (9,000 OF). Heat conducts from the core to surrounding cooler rock. The high temperature and pressure cause some rock to. melt, creating magma convection upward since it is lighter than the solid rock. The magma heats rock and water in the crust, sometimes up to 370°C (700 °F).
From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation. Worldwide, 11,400 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries in 2012.] An additional 28 giga watts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications in 2010.
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been Iireited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have dramatically expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.
(ii) Wind energy:
Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in motion, also called wind. Wind power in an open air stream is thus proportional to the third power of the wind speed; the available power increases. eight fold when the wind speed doubles. Wind turbines for grid electricity therefore need to be especially efficient at greater wind speeds. Wind is the movement of air across the surface of the Earth, affected by areas of high pressure and of low pressure. The surface of the Earth is heated unevenly by the Sun, depending on factors such as the angle of incidence of the sun’s rays at the surface (which differs with latitude and time of day) and whether the land is open or covered with vegetation. Also, large bodies of water, such as the oceans, heat up and cool down slower than the land. The heat energy absorbed at the Earth’s surface is
transferred to the air directly above it and, as warmer air is less dense than cooler air, it rises above the cool air to form areas of high pressure and thus pressure differentials. The rotation of the Earth drags the atmosphere around with it causing turbulence. These effects combine to cause a constantly varying pattern of winds across the surface of the Earth.
The total amount of economically extractable power available from the wind is considerably more than present human power use from all sources. Axel Kleidon of the Max Planck Institute in Germany carried out a “top down” calculation on how much wind energy there is, starting with the incoming solar radiation that drives the winds by creating temperature differences in the atmosphere. He concluded that somewhere between 18 TW and 68 TW could be extracted. Cristina Archer and Mark Z. Jacobson presented a “bottom-up” estimate, which unlike Kleidon’s are based on actual measurements of wind speeds, and found that there is 1700 TW of wind power at an altitude of 100 meters over land and sea. Of this, “between 72 and 170TW could be extracted in a practical and cost-competitive manner” They later estimated 80 TW However research at Harvard University estimates 1 Watt/m2 on average and 2-10 MW/km2 capacity for large scale wind farms, suggesting that these estimates of total global wind resources are too high by a factor of about 4.
A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation. These fuels are produced from living organisms. Examples of this carbon fixation occur in plants and microalgae. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion (biomass refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. This biomass conversion can result in fuel in solid, liquid, or gas form. This new biomass can be used for biofuels. Biofuels have increased in popularity because of rising oil prices and the need for energy security. However, according to the European Environment Agency, biofuels do not necessarily mitigate global warming. Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates produced in sugar or starch crops such as corn or sugarcane. Cellulosic biomass, derived from nonfood sources, such as trees and grasses, is also being developed as a feed stock for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil. Current plant design does not provide for converting the lignin portion of plant raw materials to fuel components by fermentation.
Bio diesel is made from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using trans esterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe.
In 2010, worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and bio fuels provided 2.7% of the world’s fuels for road transport, a contribution largely made up of ethanol and bio diesel. Global fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world’s top producers, accounting together for 90% of global production. The world’s largest bio diesel producer is the European Union, accounting-for 53% of all bio diesel production in 2010. As of 2011, mandates for blending bio fuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states or provinces, The International Energy Agency has a goal for bio fuels to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050 to reduce dependence on petroleum and coal.
5. Answer any One part questions.
(i) Show the physical regions of Pakistan in the given outline map and write a note on the importance of the northern mountains.
ANSWER: Pakistan can be divided into seven major physical regions. These are:
(1) The Northern High Mountainous Region.
(2) The western low Mountainous Region.
(3) The salt range or the Potwar uplands.
(4) The Plateau of Balochistan.
(5) The upper Indus orthe Punjab Plain.
(6) The lower Indus or the Sindh Plain.
(7) The coastal Area.
(1) The Northern High Mountainous Region:
This physical region includes: The ‘Himalayas, The Qaraqram, The Hindu Kush Mountainous and Ladakh range.
(i) The Himalayas:
The Himalayas are spread like an arch in the North of South Asian Sub continent. The western pat of these ranges passing through Jammu and Kashmir enters Pakistan.
Followings are the four important Himalayan Ranges:-
(a) The Sub Himalayan or the Sivalik Range: This range comprises the lower part of Himalayan Mountains. Some· districts of Punjab Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujarat and Sialkot and some parts of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa are situated here. The average height of the mountain ranges between 300 to 1000 K.M.
(b) The Lesser Himalayas or the Pir Panjal range: It is ‘situated between Sivalik and the boarders of Oaraqram Mountain. It is spread East Westerly. The average height of this range is 1800 to 4600. During winter snow falls here. The most area is forest.
(c) Central Himalayas: The area between Pir Panjal and Oaraqram is known as “central Himalayas”. Average height is about 6500 m. Kashmir valley lies in this range. It is 8260 meters high from the sea level. Murree, Nathia Gall, Abbot Abad and the valleys of Kaghan are in this region.
(ii) The Ladakh Mountain Range:
The Great Himalaya begins to climb down farther North. These low mountains are known as Ladakh Range
(iii) The Qaraqram:
It is located in the North West Himalaya in which the northern Kashmir and Gilgit are included. Its average height is 7000 m. Its highest peak is Godwin Austin (K.2) which is 8611 m. high from the sea level. This range is situated between Pakistan and China. The Oaraqram highway is built in this range near Hunza River. The trade between Pakistan and China is carried out through Qaraqram Highway.
(iv) The Hindu Kush:
Hindu Kush Mountain lies to the North West of Oaraqram, but they are eastward into Afghanistan. Greater Part of the ranges is in Afghanistan. Highest peak is Tirich Mir which is 7700m high. In winter the mountains are covered with now.
(ii) (a) Write a note on the forest types of Pakistan.
ANSWER: The following forest types are found in Pakistan.
(i) Littoral and Swamp forests:
(ii) Tropical dry deciduous forests:
(iii) Tropical thorn forests:
(iv) Sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests:
(v) Sub-tropical pine forests:
(vi) Himalayan moist temperate forests:
(vii) Himalayan dry temperate forests:
(viii) Sub-alpine forests:
Forest provides multiple benefits to environment, people, and animals. The list of benefits is as follows
- Forest cool air temperature by release of water vapor into the air.
- At day time trees gener~te oxygen and store carbon dioxide, which helps to clean air.
- Forest attracts wild life and offer food and protection to them.
- Forests offer privacy, reduce light reflection, offer a sound barrier and help guide wind direction and speed.
- Trees offer artistic functions such as creating a background, framing a view, complementing architecture, and so on.
- Well managed forests supply higher quality water with less impurity than water from other resources.
- Some forests raise total water stream, but this is not true for all forests
- Forests help in controlling the level of floods.
- Forest provides different kind of wood which are used for different purposes like making of furniture, paper, & pencils and so on.
- Forest help in giving the direction of wind and its speed.
- Forest helps in keeping environment healthy and beautiful.
- Forests also minimize noise pollution.
- Forest helps the scientist to invent new medicine as forest has different kind or plants and herb.
(b) Show any four of them in the given outline map of Pakistan.
ANSWER: The following forest types are found in Pakistan.
(i) Littoral and Swamp forests.
(ii) Tropical dry deciduous forests.
(iii) Tropical thorn forests:
(iv) Sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests,
(c) Describe the commercial importance of forest in Pakistan.
Importance of Forests:-
Forests play very important role in the economic development of our country. The area· under forests in Pakistan is very small. According to experts the area under forests should be at least ·25 to 30% of the total area of the country. In Pakistan the forest area is only 4.5%. Forest is also called green gold of the country. Its importance can be judged by the following facts:
1. Source of Raw Material: Forests provide the raw material to the various industries like sports goods industry, paper industry and furniture industry. It has vital importance for industrial development.
2. Source of Fuel: Forests are sources of fuel for domestic and commercial consumption. It is cheap source as compared to oil and electricity.
3. Source of Foreign Exchange: Forests produce various goods like honey, timber & oil which can be exported to other countries. So it is also a source of foreign exchange.
4. Source of Employment: Forests provide employment to a large number of people. There is forest department which look after forest’s affairs.
5. Climatic Importance: Forests make the climate more pleasant. Population problems can be solved by increasing the area of forests.
6. Attraction for Tourists: Forests attract the tourists from abroad and earn foreign exchange for the country. Hilly area attracts the. tourists because these are full of plants and greenery.
7. Shelter for Birds: Forests provide shelter to the animal and birds, these also provide breeding centers for the birds and animals. The wildlife like deer, tiger and peacock have also commercial value.
8. Checks on Floods Erosion: Forests are very useful in checking floods-and erosion of soil. On the banks of rivers and canals should be planted.
9. Source of Government Income: The government of Pakistan also earns a lot of income from the forests. The sale of timber product’s of forests add to the revenue of the government.
10. Source of Recreations: Hard working people need recreation in the form of hunting and sightseeing. Forests provide them recreation for holiday.
11. Importance for Defense: Forests are also very useful for the defense purpose. In case of war these protect our army from enemy. They constitute natural boundary of the country.
12. Food for Cattle: Forests also provide the grass for the cattle’s. The government also gives on lease the grassy plots to the people.
OR Point out the reasons for downfall of railway in Pakistan. Suggest the steps to uplift railway services for passengers.
ANSWER: Since 1861 when the first railway line was laid down between Karachi and Kotri, the expansion of the railway network by the British came at a rapid pace up until 1947. The driving factors for this growth were strategic and economic in nature.
Mohammad Ramzan, the stationmaster at the Golra . railway station, has spent 32 years in the service of Pakistan Railways. He, along with other employees recently got late salaries on Eid amidst rumors that Pakistan Railways does not have enough money in its coffers to pay monthly salaries. He still remembers when the carriage factory of Pakistan used to export coaches to Bangladesh and other countries back in 1990. Now, Pakistan imports substandard locomotives and spare parts from China. He laments the fact that Pakistan Railways has been treated as an orphan institution throughout the years.
“While the rulers were building road networks and motorways in the name of development, no one thought about upgrading and maintaining the railways network,” says Ramzan. When the motorway’s cost was estimated at Rs 24 billion, Pakistan Railways came up with a proposal of upgrading its entire network in Rs.10 billion. However, this aspect was neglected as the motorway was seen as a symbol
The major losses faced by the Pakistan Railways today are a direct result of decreasing revenues with increased expenditures. The expenditure recently crossed Rs.51 billion in one year out of which Rs.20 billion were allocated for salaries and pensions ..The· revenues are dwindling to about Rs.23 billion per year.
Revenue share for freight trains has declined from 40 per cent to 25 per cent as a direct result of neglecting this cheap mode of transportation. While on the other side of the border, Indian railways expanded due to transportation of goods across the country, here in Pakistan another institution called National Logistic Cell (NLC)was setup for the transportation of goods during General Ziaul Haq’s era – an
institution that directly competed with Pakistan Railways. As NLC’s role grew in the Afghan war and in the later years, Pakistan Railways was ‘sidelined further as it became irrelevant with each passing day.
The rising oil prices and scarcity of locomotives forced the Railways to focus on passenger traffic more than the transportation of goods. The fares were kept low as the government kept subsidizing the department. Pakistan Railways recently absorbed Rs.14 billion of taxpayers’ money in the form of direct subsidies. Out of 522 total engines only 220 are in working order, out of which 100 are in poor condition. Ghulam Balour, Federal Minister of Pakistan Railways, has not made any effort to hide his helplessness over corruption affecting the department and the need for new locomotives.
Nature has not been too kind to Pakistan Railways either. According to the National Disaster Management Authority, the recent floods have caused a loss of Rs.6.7 billion to the railway network as several hundred kilometers of lines were washed away. The railway coaches were also the targets of angry mobs and arson attacks after Benazir Bhutto’s assassination resulting in huge losses.
In the past, even a former Chief of 151 had been appointed as the minister for Pakistan Railways. The culture of nepotism in appointments in Pakistan Railways at different levels meant that the departmental posts were only distributed as gifts in politics and bureaucracy.
With a rapid increase in the losses incurred and suspension of many trains over the last few years, the graph of Pakistan Railways is only going down and its future looks uncertain. However, Mohammad Ramzan remains optimistic. “There is still a large number of passengers who benefit from the railway network. People often find it difficult to find reservations near holidays. As long as the people continue to prefer this safe and cheap mode of travel, the trains will continue running for them. It is only the policies of top management and leadership that will determine if this public state enterprise can turn into a profitable entity,” says Ramzan with conviction.
Suggestions to improve Pakistan Railway:
WITH massive incompetence of the Pakistan Railways, it is publicly admitting now that it does not have fuel money for more than two days. The responsible person sitting at the top should resign immediately, as all trains will be shut with no work left for them. Instead, a sincere, honest and efficient team of professionals should be put in place for three years to bring immediate improvements to the Railways department.
The significance of a good train system is critical to the economy of the country which is based on a good affordable and an efficient railways infrastructure, including new engines, bogies, tracks and bridges.
One train engine can pull up to more than 500 bogies at more than 130 km/hour from Karachi to Khyber and back. Since the KPT /PQ port handles thousands of containers a day mostly going upcountry, they have to be moved up north for which 10 trains of a few hundred cargo bogies are required on a daily basis.
Almost 10 trains from Khyber to Karachi carrying exportable goods back to the port.daily may even have to cater to freight needs of other northern landlocked neiqhbour countries.
In fact, with some minor modification trains can tarry complete trucks with their containers on them, and when they reach the nearest station, they can drive off them using a ramp, making freight trains and truck combination even more efficient.
This could become the best solution. The cost of cargo in train, as a general rule, is about one-fifth of the cost by truck, whose costs are one truck engine, two drivers and one container. So for a few hundred containers, a few hundred drivers are required for day and night, and a few hundred truck engines. In a train, however, there are four to five drivers while the size of one big engine is about eight to 10 truck engines, pulling a few hundred cargo containers at one time. If a truck charges Rs 100,000 for a container as fare for a . trip to Khyber from Karachi, it will be able to do the same fare in Rs 20,000 for a container and that also profitably for railways, if done efficiently.
Also, to add value to the railway income, the railways department should build large cold stores, milk chillers, fruit and vegetable wash plants, big warehouses and grain depots next to all major stations, especially near rural rail stations, to store perishable goods.
This extra money can be put to good use to better pay all its railway employees and, secondly, to upgrade all its systems. The Railways’ land should be converted to do what the Bahria foundation is doing: in Bahria 1, 2, and 3, Karachi, where high quality office space has been built and rented to corporate customers.
A solid Railways foundation should be built for the welfare of all retired railways employees, so that the employees of the Railways department work hard and sincerely to look forward to a stable retirement.
I would urge the government and all relevant authorities to take prompt steps to improve the railways department.