SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOI’CE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) The Rhine-river valley industrial region is located in:
(ii) It leads the world in dairy farming:
* North Western Europe
* North Eastern Europe
* Northern Europe
* Eastern Europe
(iii) 90% of World population lives here:
* Coastal areas
(iv) The first motorway of Pakistan is:
(v) The largest cotton-producing country is:
(vi) The first nuclear power plant of Pakistan is at:
(vii) Rubber is the native plant of:
* South Africa
(viii) In Pakistan, the cause of Cyclones is the:
* River Indus
* Tarbela Dam
* Arabian Sea
* Bay of Bengal
(ix) This is a tunnel or narrow underground canal:
* Seasonal Canal
(x) The capital of Indonesia is:
* Kuala Lumpur
(xi) Malaysia lies in:
* South Asia
* South East Asia
* Central Asia
* West Asia
(xii) Warsak Dam is situated 30 km north-west of:
(xiii) Lumbering is this type of economic activity:
(xiv) Appalachian cost mines are located in:
(xv) Tarbela dam is built on the river:
SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
2. Answer any Five part questions.
(i) Explain the term ‘The Torrid Zone’ and write the names of any two countries of this region.
ANSWER: The Torrid Zone refers to the area of the earth between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. Geographically, the Torrid Zone is defined by 23.5 degrees north latitude and 23.5 degrees south latitude. The tropic zone is another name for the Torrid Zone. This climate zone is one of the original five zones used to define the climate and growing zones of the earth. The delineation of this zone has since been modified to allow for the multitude of different biomes located within this traditionally tropical region. Australia Indonesia comes in the Torrid Zone.
(ii) Why Rubber is called an equatorial plant?
ANSWER: Growth of rubber depends upon a number of geographical and economic factors. These are:
1. It is an equatorial or a tropical plant. It grows the best in regions having hot and humid climate. It needs constantly high temperature over 26°C and with no month having less than 21°C temperature. The plant requires heavy rainfall of over 205 ems, well distributed throughout the year.
2. Gentle slopes provide ideal grounds for rubber plantations. It provides drainage to the plants.
3. Rich deep loamy soils are highly suitable for rubber plantations.
4. Preparation of land, looking after the plants, clearing of weeds, collection of latex, transportation etc. involve huge labour, thus availability of cheap and efficient labour is an asset for the development of rubber plantations.
(iii) What do you mean by Edible oil? Name the main sources of edible oil.
ANSWER: Presumably it refers to any oil used in cooking for example, sun flower oil, vegetable oil, etc. rather than non edible oils such as engine oil.
Animal fats are a by-product of the whole meat chain. Animal fats are not produced as such. They are only produced in relation to the raising of animals for meat, eggs, milk or wool production. Animal fats are a side, co- or by-product of the production of another animal product.
The volume of animal fats increases with an increasing production of meat, eggs, milk or wool, but their production won’t increase with an increasing demand for animal fats. Animals are not raised for animal fats like oil-seeds are planted for vegetable oil.
Another difference to oil-seeds is that, like fish oil production, the processing of animal by-products always includes a thermal processing (melting) step; cold processing is not possible.
(iv) China is major producer and importer of Iron Ore. Comment.
ANSWER: Please sea Q.2 (viii) of 2014 Regular
(v) Write note on Truck Farming.
ANSWER: Please sea Q.2 (vii) of 2014 Regular
(vi) Enlist of different factors used for establishment of industries.
ANSWER: The factors that influence the location of industries are:
(a) Availability of Water.
(b) Nearness to source of power or availability of power supply in an area will reduce the cost of production, in other words, this will fetch a higher income for a company as the money would be saved for the production of other goods or payment of employee salary.
(c) Availability of labour. Efficiency of labour is an important factor affecting location of industry. A higher labour force will improve production process for goods with elastic effect will create revenue. In other hand diminishing returns will be applied if more or more labour for industry.
(d) Government policies might influence the location of industry. A favorable Government policy will improve the location of industry as funds and other forms of incentive will be given to industry for the purchase of Raw Materials. This will help in the development of technology that will improve production of goods.
(e) Availability of infrastructure like water, good and available transport system are providing for location of industry.
(f) Availability of Raw Material, Capital, Transport and market.
(g) Incentive such as import of machine.
(vii) State the importance of Hydro-electricity:
ANSWER: Hydroelectric energy is important because it is primarily a renewable energy source i.e. it can be used over and over again. This is important in the society of today as the awareness of the effects of non-renewable .energy sources are more widely known, placing a greater importance on .sustainable sources of energy.
(viii) Give an account of Fishing in East Asia.
ANSWER: Many of the world’s great river systems sit in Asia. What begins in a trickle high -in the Himalayas grows to a delta by the time it reaches the ocean and becomes full of aquatic life. Elsewhere huge lakes and pristine streams in untouched regions of China and Mongolia are teaming with fish. As the population grows though, over fishing is a major concern, especially on the coasts, this is why the farthest and
remote reaches of the land are some of the best places for angling.
3. Answer any four part questions.
(i) Write a note on the Geographical location of Pakistan.
ANSWER: Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands; the Indus River plain, with two major subdivisions corresponding roughly to the provinces of Punjab and Sindh; and the Baluchistan Plateau. Some geographers designate additional major regions. For example, the mountain. ranges along the western border with Afghanistan are sometimes described separately from the Baluchistan Plateau, and on the eastern border with India, south of the Sutlej River, the Thar Desert may be considered separately from the Indus Plain, Nevertheless, the country may conveniently be visualized in general terms as divided in three by an imaginary line drawn eastward from the Khyber Pass and another drawn southwest from Islamabad down the middle of the country. Roughly, then, the northern highlands are north of the imaginary east-west line; the Baluchistan Plateau is to the west of the imaginary southwest line; and the
Indus Plain lies to the east of that line.
(ii) Compare the features of the upper Indus plain with those of the lower Indus plain.
1. upper Indus plain is the north while the lower is in the south
2. Upper Indus plain has doabs lower has no doabs
3. Upper Indus Plain has Indus River and its tributaries flowing there while in lower Indus plain has only Indus plain flowing there
4. Upper Indus plain covers most’ of the Punjab while lower covers most of Sindh
5. River Jhelum, Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab meet at Panjnad while in lower only Indus river flows directly into the Arabian Sea
6. Upper Indus plain has potwar plateau next to it while Baluchistan plateaus located near lower Indus plain.
(iii) Name the important Highways of Pakistan.
ANSWER: Pakistan’s National Highways include famous highways such as the Grand Trunk Road, the Indus Highway, the Karakoram Highway and the Makran Coastal Highway.
(iv) Name the Cotton-producing areas in Pakistan and give their importance.
ANSWER: Punjab produces 86 percent and Sindh 14 per cent of cotton annually.
Pakistan Textile Industry is totally dependent on raw material, especially cotton. Cotton occupies a unique position among various cash crops of Pakistan and it is life blood of Pakistan’s economy. Raw cotton and its by-products contribute about 69 per cent of our total foreign exchange earnings. It is major source of income and employment generation in agricultural and industrial sector. It provides jobs to about 7 million people, raw material to 1255 ginning units, more than 300 textile .mills and 800 oil expelling units. It also meets about 55 per cent of domestic edible oil requirements indirectly.
(v) Write any four positive aspects of Dams.
ANSWER: Dams have a whole range of positive effects Reduced risk of floods
(vi) Why are there few major Roads and Railways in Baluchistan?
ANSWER: Quetta is on the western edge of Pakistan and is well connected to the rest of the country by a network of roads, railways and airways. At an altitude of 1,605 meters (5,260 ft.) above sea level,
A track from the Iranian city of Zahedan links to Quetta via Taftan. Service was temporarily discontinued in 2006 due to unrest in Baluchistan. More recently railway service has come under renewed attack by the Balochs, especially in the Bolan Pass area, resulting in passenger deaths and creating a .sense of insecurity amongst the travelling public. Quetta Railway Station.
Quetta is connected by metaled roads to the rest of the country. A recently built road connects it with Karachi through Mastung, Kalat, Khuzdar and Lasbela. Other major roads are Quetta to Karachi following the Sibi, .Jacobabad, Sukkur and Hyderabad route and two roads from Quetta to Lahore one (the older) via Sibi, Sukkur, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalpur and Multan the other route via Khanozai, Muslimbagh Loralai, Fort Mondro, Dera Ghazi Khan and Multan. Quetta is also connected with Afahanistan through Chaman and to Iran through Mastung, Nushki, Dalbandin and Taftan.
(vii) What is the Indus Basin Treaty?
ANSWER: The Indus Waters Treaty is a water is sharing treaty between India and Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development).The treaty was signed in Karachi on September 19, 1960 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan). The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in India, it could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan, especially at times of war. However, India did not revoke the treaty during any of three later Indo-Pakistani Wars.
SECTION C (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTION)
4. Answer any Two part questions.
(i) What are Commercial activities? Explain with examples.
To provide himself with necessities of life, man is engaged in various economic activities. Le Economic Activities are the essence of Economic geography, which can be divided into the following groups:
(i) Primary Activities:
Primary activities generally include occupations that are closely related to physical geographic condition. Such as hunting, fishing, lumbering,
hurdling, mining and farming etc.
(ii) Secondary Activities:
In secondary activities man changes the shape of products to enhance its value. Secondary activities include all types of manufacturing,
whether it is a cooking of meal or manufacturing of cloths or machines.
For the better utilization of the products of the primary and secondary activities, services are provided in tertiary activities. Surplus food grains are transported and sold to places, deficient in food. Thus transport and trade are tertiary activities.
(ii) Explain the Geographical conditions necessary for the production of rice in the world.
ANSWER: Suitable factors required for the cultivation of rice are: 1. Temperature, 2. Rainfall, 3. Soils, 4. Surface, 5. Fertilizers and 6. Labour.
Rice is a tropical crop and grown where the average temperature during the growing season is between 20°C and 27°C.Abundant sunshine is essential during its four months of growth. The minimum temperature should not go below 15°C as germination cannot take place below that temperature.
Paddy requires more water than any other crop. As a result, paddy cultivation is done only in those areas where minimum rainfall is 115 cm. Althou~h the regions are having average annual rainfall between 175-300 cm are the most suitable.
Paddy also needs flooded conditions with the depth of water varying over 25 mm at the time of transplanting to as much as 150 mm for 10 weeks of the growing period.
Paddy is grown in wide range of soil, from the podzolic alluvium of China to the impermeable heavy clay of central Thailand. Fertile riverine alluvial soil is best for rice cultivation. Clayey loam soil in monsoon land is considered to be the best for rice cultivation as water retention capacity of this soil is very high. Rice is also grown in saline areas of deltic region. Rice cultivation needs high fertilizer application.
Unlike other crops, paddy needs a level surface. to enable the fields to be flooded at least during the growing period. It’s ideal habitat is therefore in the great alluvial deltas and river basins of the world: the Ganges, Siking, Yangtzekiang, Irrawaddy, Menam Chao Phraya and Mekong, where there is practically no gradient.
Paddy requires three essential plant nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Most paddy lands have a moderate quantity of such nutrients, but if they are deficient, organic manure or artificial fertilizers have to be used.
Paddy cultivation is extremely labour-intensive, therefore, requires more labour in comparison to other cereal crops. Labour is necessary for: preparing the field, weeding, sowing, transplanting, manuring, harvesting, threshing, winnowing and milling. For rice cultivation large number of cheap labour is required.
(iii) (a) State the conditions favorable for Sugarcane corp
ANSWER: Following are the favorable conditions for the production of sugarcane.
Sugar cane requires a warm climate, with temperatures only slightly below freezing capable of killing off this plant. Temperatures between 70 and 95 degrees Fahrenheit are best for growing sugar cane.
Plant sugar cane in well-drained, nutrient rich soil. Excess nitrogen causes significant cane growth but lowers the sugar content of the plant.
Sugar cane requires regular moisture but does not perform well if it becomes overly wet or remains waterlogged for periods of time. Take care to keep the soil moist but not wet, especially immediately after planting and until the sugar cane shoots break above the ground. It is during this period of growth that sugar cane is most sensitive to excessive amounts of water, according to the University of Florida Extension.
Sugar cane grows well in full sun, according to the University of Florida Extension. Partial shade results in reduced overall growth.
(b) Enlist the by-products of sugarcane.
Molasses, the dark sweet liquid produced during the sugar refining process, has a number of uses. For human consumption, it is used in the bakery industry, the production of alcohol, and in pharmaceuticals. It is a common ingredient in cookies,· cakes and baked beans, and is used in the production of rum and ale.For livestock, it is an energy feed. It increases the palatability of livestock feed and serves as a
binder in feed pellets.
After the sugar is pressed from sugarcane, bagasse is the fibrous material that remains. The most common use for bagasse is the fuel to run sugarcane mills. It can also be processed into paper, replacing wood pulp. Bagasse is used to manufacture plates, cups and bowls, replacing Styrofoam. It can also be made into ethanol. Brazil is the world leader in ethanol production from sugar and sugar byproducts.
At the sugar processing plant, sugar beets are sliced, cooked and pressed. The remaining pulp is sold as wet beet pulp or dried into shreds or pellets. Beet pulp serves as a supplemental feed for livestock. It is low in crude protein, but relatively high in energy.
When sugar beets arrive at the processing plant, foreign material, leaves and small beets are separated from the sugar beets prior to processing. This material is called beet tailings and is used as a livestock feed. Beet tops are removed from the sugar beets and fed to livestock.
(iv) Write notes on anyone of the following:
OPEC’s objective is to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10-14,1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The five Founding Members were later joined by nine other Members: Qatar (1961); Indonesia (1962) – suspended its membership from January 2009; Libya (1962); United Arab Emirates (1967); Algeria (1969); Nigeria (1971); Ecuador (1973) – suspended its membership from December 1992-October 2007; Angola (2007) and Gabon (1975-1994). OPEC had its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in the first five years of its existence. This was moved to Vienna, Austria, on September 1,1965.
(b) Importance of forests:
The chief economic product of forests is timber, but the economic benefits, in terms of climate control, pollution abatement, and wildlife maintenance, have rarely been calculated. The economic importance of non-timber forest products is also increasing. The forest is also vital as a watershed. Because of the thick humus layer, loose soil, and soil-retaining powers of the trees’ long roots, forests are vitally important for preserving adequate water supplies. Almost all water ultimately feeds from Forest Rivers and lakes and from forest-derived water tables. In addition, the forest provides shelter for wildlife, recreation and aesthetic renewal for people, and irreplaceable supplies of oxygen and soil nutrients. Deforestation, particularly in the tropical rain forests, has become a major environmental concern, as it can destabilize the earth’s temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. Efforts to control deforestation, including those at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, remain ineffective.
(c) Natural Rubber
ANSWER: Natural rubber, also called India rubber caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of- tb!l organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other orqanlc compounds plus water. Forms of polyisoprene that are useful as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from certain trees. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called “tapping”. The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other materials. In most of its useful forms, it has a large stretch ratio, high resilience, and is extremely waterproof.
5. Answer any One part question:
(i) List the Physical features of Pakistan & explain any two
Physical features of Pakistan:
Highest peaks of Pakistan:
K2. 8,616 m (second highest after mount Everest, is located on the border of china and Gilgit-baltistan(Pakistan).
Nanga Parbat. Also describe as Killer Mountain. and naked mountain, elevation is about 8,125 m (26,660ft) located in Gilgit-baltistan in Himalayan range. it is 9th highest mountain of the world.
Gasherbrum is also known as K5, or Hidden peak it’s elevation is 8068 m (about 26,509 ft). it is eleventh highest of the world and is located in Karakorum range on the border of China and Pakistan(Gilgat baltistan) Broad peak (K3) also known as faichan kangri is 8,065 m (26,414 ft) elevated above the sea level and is the 12Th highest mountain of the world. Gasherbrum ii (K4) itis 8,035 m (26,362 ft) high and is 13th highest mountain of the world.
Gasherbrum III is 7,952m (26,089 ft) high and is situated on the china-Pakistan border. Gasherbrum IV is 7,925 m (2601 ft) high. 17th highest of the world and sixth largest in Pakistan. Gasherbrum is taken into the word of shinning wall or beautiful mountain.
Distagil sar is the 19th highest mountain of the world which is 7,885 m(25,869 ft) located in Hispar muztagh in Gilgat baltistan moreover, Kunyang Kish 7,852m (25,761 ft),
Rakaposhi 25,551 ft, Batura 1, Kanjut
Sar, Saltoro Kangri, Trivor and Tirich . are prominent.
Mancher lake, (in sindh)
keenjar, (in sindh)
Saiful maluk, (khybar pakhtoonkhua)
Satpara, (Northern areas)
Kachura, (Northern areas)
This plain is spread, in the South of Slat Range and in the East of Suleiman Range and Kirthur Mountain whjch is spread up to the Arabian Sea. This region is irrigated by river Indus, Ravi, Jhelum, Sutleg and Chenab. Hence it is called the Indus plain. The point of Mithan Kot all 9ther rivers join Indus. The plain above Mithan Kot is called the upper Indus plain. The upper part of river Indus is made of teh soil brouth by rivers. So it is very fertile. There are a few rainfalls in it. There is a long chain of canals spread in this area which is unique in the world. Due to these effects good crops are produced over here. In this plain some hills are seen near Chiniot and Sangla Hill. These are not so high to obstruct roads and canals for irrigation. In the West of river Jhelum there is a desert of Thai. This is now irrigated by canals coming from Jinriah Barrage. Due to’ which a large part of Thai has been populated. There are many Doabas in this region, For Example Ban Doab, Singh, Sagar Doab, Neli Bar in district Multan and Sahiwal, Gunji Barand Kuruta Bar. As soon as we go away teh plain became higher and higher. This raised region plain called Daras. In the north of Daras, the plains of Bannu and Peshawar are very fertile. Good crops are found here due to canals and tube wells. The important crops of its region are wheat, rice, cotton, sugar cane, tobacco and oil seeds.
The Lower ‘Indus Plain:
The region in the south of Mizhan Kot to the Arabian Sea is called the lower Indus Plain. It includes the most part of Sindh Province. This plain is very fertile. In the North of sindh many canals have been dug due to which good crops are produced. The people of this region are becoming rich day by day. The central part of sindh has been irrigated by canals to a large extent, but the eastern part is still desert. It is called the desert of, Thar many arrangements are being made for teh progress oftnls-region. Near Thatha, river Indus starts making Delta and is divided into many branches which afterwards fall in the Arabian Sea. During rainy season most of its part is flooded with water and bring large destruction.
The south eastern part of Pakistan consists of deserts. This area includes the district of Bahawalpur, Sukkur, khairpur, Sanghar, Mir Pur Khas and Tharparkar. Following are main deserts of Pakistan.
The area which is situated in Bahawalpur is called Cholistan.
This desert is situated in the North West of Balochistan province. Which is called Desert of Kharan? Deserts are unpopulated and barren due to less rainfall.
The length of coastal plain of Pakistan is about 700 kilometers which starts from the border of Sindh with an Indian and ends at Pakistan and Iran in the West. The coastal areas of Pakistan are very important due to its geographical situation. Also the possibility of mineral oil in the sea has increased the importance of coastal regions. That is why the government is giving more importance to the progress of these areas.
(ii) (a) Describe the different methods of irrigation in Pak
Over the years, th.e canal irrigation system of Pakistan has witnessed many paradigm shifts in the context of advancement and effectiveness. From the olden practices of the conventional well system to the modern approaches of perennial canals and tube wells, the canal irrigation system of Pakistan has beheld some very significant changes. In the initial years of the adoption of the canal irrigation system, there were various ways to irrigate the fields such as shaduf, charsa, Persian wheel and karez. In Shaduf, it is a balancing act where a bucket is attached to one side while on the other side the weight of the bucket is balanced by a tantamount weight. Shaduf is used to irrigate a small piece of land. Coming to Charsa, it is characterized by animal power, which is incorporated to draw the water from the well. Then comes the Persian wheel which is used to irrigate vast expanses of land and is a system of perpetual water supply. Coming towards the next one, it’s the karez, which is a horizontal canal, which is built underground in the foothills. This approach is primarily used to prevent the evaporation rate as it is built underground.
(b) What are the problems of Canal irrigation in Pakistan? Suggest the means to receive them.
The surface drainage problem of the Indus Plain is inherent in its flat topography, and the associated lac.k of natural drainage channels and porous soils. This problem is compounded by construction of roads, railways and flood embankments without adequate provision in the design to facilitate natural drainage flows. Under these circumstances irrigation without adequate drainage .leads to rising water tables and hence salinity and water logging. Therefore it is vital for sustainable agriculture to construct adequate drainage systems for the removal of excess water and salt from the soil. During the 1960s a number of Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARPs) were undertaken. Despite these efforts about 30% of the -Gross Commanded Area (GCA) is water logged and 14%is salt affected.
(iii) Mention the problems faced by Karachi due to high density of Population.
Population growth in both underdeveloped and developed nations can cause an array of problems. These problems typically include deficiencies in health care programs, lack of resources and pollution. Unfortunately, certain difficulties, such as malnourishment due to food
shortages, may spark related crises, such as outbreaks of disease due to malnourishment. In order to combat these problems, a government’s lawmakers and leaders must implement wise policies that concentrate on vital reform measures.
Malnutrition and disease are concerns that must be addressed by regions that experience high population growth. Even in developed nations such as the United States, poor, displaced or elderly citizen are unable to receive access to sufficient health care. In highly populated urban areas of these developed nations, just as much as in third world nations, diseases can easily spread .when people are residing in close quarters. A person’s susceptibility to diseases like malaria and respiratory infections is aggravated by malnutrition. Profound immuno-suppression is also exacerbated in victims of HIV as a result of malnutrition.
Allocation of Resources:
Land, one of nature’s most valuable resources, may suffer soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the unwise use of farming techniques. Scarce resources may also include food, water, access to adequate health care and even educational opportunities. Wise allocation of resources through social circumscription measures may alleviate such problems as they are experienced within dense populations. Highly populated urban regions may have better access to industrial remedies for these problems than their less populated rural counterparts.
Population pressure has been cited as an instigator of anomie, which is a state of alienation related to social standards that are either inflexible or altogether absent. .Subjects Who experience anomie are often motivated to commit acts of crime against fellow members of society as a result of cultural conflicts, conflicts of values or sex-role conflicts. Deviant behavior, such as criminal acts committed by sociopaths, is often more difficult for investigators to detect in highly populated areas than in sparsely populated regions. As a result of other problems associated with a dense population, such as poverty and malnutrition, crime is often the only way for people to gain access to a variety of resources.
Issues such as air pollution stemming from industrial activity, waterborne infections carried through unsanitary drinking water, and mismanagement of solid waste plague densely populated areas of the world. Major cities with high populations create a significant amount of pollution through factory waste and automobile emissions. In the absence of sufficient regulation, environmentalists allege that these cities severely damage the earth’s; atmosphere. By contrast, underdeveloped regions with dense populations can cause damage to the earth’s soil via groundwater pollution or crude farming techniques.
Need for Government Relief Programs:
Injustices resulting from a poor distribution of wealth within an highly populated society tend to reveal inadequacies in governmental relief programs. In bustling urban areas, such injustices may include a ‘tradition of corruption within law enforcement agencies, which are challenged to keep tabs on their vast networks of employees. Less developed regions, also subject to population pressure, tend to exhibit the savage consequences of these injustices through uncontrollable poverty levels, high levels of illiteracy and child abuse. Government agencies in such regions can be rendered impotent with regard to their abilities to initiate effective reform programs, because of insufficient funds and the inexperience of leaders in implementing such reform measures.