SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
(xvi) The founder of the Indian National Congress was:
* A.O. Hume
(xvii) The number of castes in Hindu Society is:
(xviii) In 1930, Allama Iqbal presented his presidential address at:
(xix) The upper house of Pakistan’s Parliament is the:
* National Assembly
* President House
* Prime Minister House
(xx) The economy of Pakistan is based on:
SECTION B (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
2.(i) Write five differences between Hindu and Muslim society.
(i) Religious Difference
(ii) Cultural Differences
(iii) Social Differences
(iv) Economic Differences These are the 5 main differences:
Muslims believe in ONE God, but Hindus worship many gods and goddesses.
In Islam, all humans are created equal but Hinduism has a caste system, with four major castes.
Hindus believe that your body and soul comes back after your death and ‘you re-live, Muslims believe in the day of judgment only.
Muslims eat all wholesome food including meat of Cow, goat, and chicken while cow ‘is a sacred animal-and a deity for . Hindus, Hindus believes in songs and dance and Muslims do not.
(ii) State any five Islamic provisions of the 1973 constitution
1. Islamic Republic of Pakistan:
Pakistan shall be known as “Islamic Republic of Pak”
Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan.
A Muslim to be a President and Prime Minister:
The constitution laid down that only Muslims shall be elected president and Prime Minister of Pakistan. On non- Muslim could hold these offices.
4. Teachings of Holy auran:
The state shall try to make the teachings of Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language.
5. Strengthen Bond, with Muslim World:
The state shall endeavor to strengthen fraternal relations among lAuslim countries in order to promote Islamic unity.
(iii) State here aims and objectives of the All India Muslim League.
Following were the objectives of the All India Muslim League:
(i) To inculcate among Muslims a feeling of loyalty to the government and to disabuse their minds of misunderstandings and misconceptions of its actions and intentions.
(ii) To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government from time to time.
(iii) To prevent the growth of ill will between Muslims and other nationalities without compromising to its own purposes.
(iv) Write note on anyone regional language of Pakistan.
Languages of Pakistan include the two official languages: Urdu and English. Urdu is also Pakistan’s national language. Additionally, Pakistan has four major provincial lan9-Uage~;Ptmjcibi, Pashto, Sindhi and Balochi. Other major regionai languages are Saraiki, Hindko, Pahari-Potwari and Brahui. Farsi is also spoken by significant proportions of the population. Dialects such as Dari are popular as well as some regional dialects r. Farsi speakers are mainly concentrated in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan and some elite areas of Most of the languages of Pakistan belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family
(v) Mention any five principles of Pakistan’s foreign policy.
1. Protection of freedom and sovereignty
2. Cordial Relations with Muslim Countries
3. Non Interference in Internal Affairs of Other countries
4. Implementation of U.NCharter
5. Promotion of World Peace
7. Support for Self-Determination and Condemnation of Racial Discrimination
(vi) Write Indus basin Treaty.
The Indus Waters Treaty is a water-sharing .treaty between the Republic of India and Islamic Republic of Pakistan, brokered by the World Bank (then the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development). The treaty was signed in” Karachi on September 19, 1960 by Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and President of Pakistan Mohammad Ayub Khan. The treaty was a result of Pakistani fear that since the source rivers of the Indus basin were in
India, it could potentially create droughts and famines in Pakistan, especially at times of war. However, India did not revoke the treaty during any of three later Indo-Pakistani Wars.
OR Explain the Geographical Importance of Pakistan.
Pakistan in Asia has much geographical importance because of its strateqlc location. Firstly, Pakistan has all features of nature like sea, deserts, mountains, rivers.
Secondly, in this region there are four seasons; summer, winter, autumn and spring. Pakistan shares its borders with very prominent countries in the world like India, China, Afghanistan and Iran. Land lock countries do not have route for the transportation of goods by sea therefore, Pakistan also provides sea transportation to some countries. Interestingly, Pakistan is a Muslim country and it is located in the chain of the Muslim countries therefore, it is also known as “Center of Muslim World”.
(vii) State the importance of Pakistan
Resolution 1940 A.D.
The Lahore Resolution, commonly known as the Pakistan Resolution was a formal political statement adopted by the Muslim League on the occasion of its three-day general session on March 22-24, 1940 that called for the creation of ‘independent states’ for Muslims in British India. The constituent units of these states were to be autonomous and sovereign. This was later interpreted as a demand for a separate Muslim state, Pakistan. The resolution was presented by A. K. Fazlul Huq. .
Muhammad Ali Jinnah and other leaders had kept firm their belief in Hindu-Muslim unity. However, the volatile political climate and sidelining of Muslims by Indian National Congress showed the future of the Muslims in ute subcontinent not so bright and gave the idea stronger backing.Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman seconding the Lahore resolution with Jinnah chairing the session
(viii) Write about any two natural resources of Pakistan.
Pakistan’s natural resources include an extensive natural gas supply, some oil, hydro power potential, coal (although not high quality),. iron ore, copper, salt, and limestone. Agricultural products are wheat, cotton, rice, sugarcane, eggs, fruit, vegetables, milk, beef, and mutton. Primary industry includes textiles, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, shrimp, fertilizer, and paper products. Major exports are textiles, rice, leather goods, sports goods, carpets, rugs, and chemicals. Pakistan imports petroleum, machinery, plastic, edible oil, iron, steel, tea, and
OR Why was the province of Bengal divided in 1905?
The Partition of Bengal in 1905 was made on October 16 by Viceroy Curzon. The former province of Bengal was divided . into two new provinces “BengaJ” (comprising western Bengal as well as the province of Bihar and Orissa) and “East Bengal and Assam” with Dacca (Dhaka) being the capital of the latter. Partition was promoted for administrative reasons: Bengal was as large as France but with a significantly larger
Muslim League at Lahore in 1940. He said:
“India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a Sub Continent of nationalities. Hindus and Muslims being the two major nations. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine and they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas -and conceptions. Their aspects on life and of are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Muslims derive their inspiration from different sources of history.”
On March 8, 1944 while addressing the students of Muslim University, he said:
“Hindus and Muslims through living in the same town and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.”
Quaid-e-Azam and Millat-e-Islamia:
He believed that only Islam was the unifying force of.the Muslim Millat. He said:
“What relationships knits the Muslims into one whole, which is the. formidable rock on which the Muslim edifice has been erected, which is the sheet anchor providing base to the Muslim Millat, the relationship, the sheet anchor and the rock is Holy Quran.”
Address At Islamia College Peshawar In 1946, at Islamia College Quaid-e-Azam declared:
“We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”
Address on 18th June 1945:
In his message to the Frontier Muslim Students Federation, he said:
“Pakistan not only means freedom and independence but Muslim ideology, which has to be preserved which came to us as a precious gift and treasure and which we hope, other will share with us.”
The above sayings and statements largely prove that Quaid-e- Azam wanted to establish an Islamic system as a code of life because he believed that it was the sole objective of the Pakistan Movement
4. Discuss the importance of Urdu language in National integration of Pakistan.
Languages of Pakistan include the two official languages: Urdu and English, which are spoken as first languages by relatively small numbers of people, but commonly used throughout the country. Urdu is also Pakistan’s national language and lingua franca. The four major provincial languages of Pakistan are Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Balochi. Other major regional languages are Saraiki, Hindko, Pahari-Potwari and Brahui. Farsi is also spoken by significant proportions of the population. Dialects such as Dari are popular as well as some regional dialects. Farsi speakers are mainly concentrated in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan and some elite areas of Western Punjab.
Most of the languages of Pakistan belong to the Indo- Iranian group of the Indo-European language family.
Urdu is a register of Hindi-Urdu, identified with Muslims in South Asia. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an official language of five states. Based on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi, Urdu developed’ under the. influence of Persian, Arabic. and Turkic over the course of almost 900 years. It began to take shape in what is now Uttar Pradesh, India during the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1527), and continued to develop under the Mughal Empire (1526-1R58). Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi spoken in India. Both languages share the same Indic base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language. The combined population of Hindi and
Urdu speakers is the fourth largest in the world. Mughals hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, the tribe had embraced Turkic and Persian culture, and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. Their mother tongue was the Chaghatai language (known to them as Turki, “Turkic”) and they were equally at home in Persian, the lingua franca of the Timurid elite. But after their arrival in the Indian subcontinent, the need to communicate with local inhabitants led to use of Indic languages written in the Persian alphabet, with some literary conventions and vocabulary retained from Persian and Turkic; this eventually became a new standard called Hindustani, which is the direct predecessor of Urdu.
Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi. Apart from religious associations, the differences are largely restricted to the standard forms: Standard Urdu is conventionally written in the Nastaliq style of the Persian alphabet and relies heavily on Persian and Arabic as a source for technical and literary vocabulary, whereas Standard Hindi is conventionally written
Sindhi region. The Hindus sing Bhajans but Pakistani culture has adopted Qawwali which is a praise of the Holy Prophet P.B.U.H.
(iv) Rich Literature:
Pakistani culture is rich in the literatures of Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtu, Baruhi, Baluchi and Kashmiri languages. Urdu literature boasts of the masterpieces of Maulana Azad, Iqbal, Shibli, Hall, Ghalib, Agha Hashar, Manto and Faiz whereas the Punjabi literature stands out with great names like Waris Shah, Sultan Bahu, Ghulam Farid, Bulhay Shah and Shah Hussain etc. Similarly, Sindhi literature glitters with the masterpieces of Shah Abdul Latif, Sachal Sarmast, Shah Qadir Bakhsh, and Faqir Nabi Bakhsh. The Pashto literature also boasts of names like Sheikh Saleh, Raghoon Khan, Akhund dardeeza, Khushal Khan Khattak and Rahman Baba. The Baluchi literature comprises of masterpieces of Jam Durk, Muhammad AIi, Zahoor Shah Hashmi, Ghani I?arvez, Hasrat Baluch, Abbas Ali Zemi and Aziz Bugti etc.
(v) Male Dominated Society:
Pakistani society is dominated by male members. Each family is headed by the senior most male member who is responsible for arranging the bread and butter of the family.
(vii) Variety of Dresses:
Pakistani culture is rich in variety of dresses: The people of Punjab, the Pathans of NWFP, the Baluchi people and the Sindhis wear their own distinct dresses. These dresses are very colorful and prominent and give attractive look during national fairs and festivals.
(viii) Fairs and Festivals:
The culture of Pakistan has great tradition of Fairs and festivals. These fairs are held in all parts of the country. Moreover, annual urs of great saints are held to commemorate their anniversaries: On these occasions, fairs are also held in which people take part in great numbers. Out of these the Horse and Cattle shows of Lahore, Mianwali and Sibi are famous whereas the P.olo”festival for Gilgit is prominent at national and international level. Moreover annual urs of Hazrat Daata Ganj Bakhsh, Madhu Lal Hussain, Baba Bulhay Shah,
Baba Farid Gunj Shakar, Baba Gulu Shah, Pir Jamaat Ali Shah, Abdul Latif Bhitaii, Hazrat Noshah Ganj Bakhsh, Bari Imam, Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, and Bahauddin Zakriya are celebrated with great fervour.
Pakistani people are great lovers of sports and games.
Modern games like hockey, cricket, football, badminton, squash, table tennis and lawn tennis are played throughout the country. In addition wrestling, boxing, and athletics are also very popular among masses. Pakistan has produced great sportsmen in the past. These include Bholu in Wrestling, Hanif, Miandad, Imran, Wasim Akram, and Inzamam in cricket, Shehnaz sheikh, Islahuddin, Khalid mahmood, Akhtar Rasool, and Munir Oar in hockey and Jahangir, Jansher in squash.
Pakistan enjoys great distinction in handicrafts at international level. Wooden furniture of Chiniot, sports goods of Sialkot and embroidery of Multan and Hyderabad is world famous.
OR What problems were faced by Pakistan soon after its creation?
Pakistan came into existence on 14th august 1947. Soon after its establishment Pakistan faced number of problems. Most of the problems of Pakistan were related with Pakistan dispute with India, such as the accession of the princely states, canal Water dispute, refugees’ problems and distribution of armed and military assets. Infect most of these problems were deliberately created by India itself so that Pakistan would not maintain its independent status and soon merged with India.
1. RADCLIFF AWARD (AUGUST 16,1947:
The Indian Independence Act 1947 provided the formation of two boundary commissions for the division of the provinces of Punjab and Bengal between India and Pakistan. Each boundary commission consisted of representatives from India and Pakistan. Both India and Pakistan were agreed to accept the decision of Radcliff incase of deadlock. As expected the representatives of India and Pakistan were unable to reach on an agreement and Radcliff announced his own decisions on 16th August 1947.
The award was partial, unjust and unfair to Pakistan as cliff handed over number of. Muslim majority areas which were contiguous to the boundary of Pakistan to India but none out the Hindu majority areas to Pakistan; Award also paved the way for the disputes between India and Pakistan over Kashmir and Canal Water
At the time of partition there were 462 princely states in subcontinent that cover 1/3 of Indian Territory and 1/4 of its population. Rulers of these princely states were given option by the British government either to join India, Pakistan or remain independent. However these states were advised to consider geographical location and religious trends of their respective states before accession to the either country. By rs” August most of these states announced their accession to either India or Pakistan except Kashmir, Hyderabad and Junagadh.
Communal violence that had already started reached to its height after the announcement of Radcliff Award on 16tn August 1947. Hindus were an g ry ove r th e division of the Subcontinent whereas Sikhs were unhappy over the loss of their religious places. Sikhs and Hindu armed with deadly weapons slaughter the man woman and even the small children. Due to the communal violence millions of Indian Muslims leaving there property started migrating towards Pakistan. Apart from communal violence another reason for the migration of Muslims was their desire to live in a newly established Islamic state. The arrival of refugees created problem for both the countries but the issue was more serious in the nascent state of Pakistan that was already facing no of problems. It was estimated that only West Pakistani received 5.5 million refugees and one sixth of the entire population of West Pakistan consisted of refugees. It caused economic and administratlve problems, as Pakistan did not have sufficient resources to provide food, shelter and medical aid to the growing no of refugees. Even more serious fact was that offices and factories could not work properly because nearly all the Hindu and Sikh staff left Pakistan and majority’ of the refugees that arrived in Pakistan were peasant and unskilled and they were inexperience for the jobs that were waiting for them. It resulted serious dislocation for Pakistan in its economic life,
4. CANAL WATER DISPUTE:
It had its origin in Radcliff Award which drew the boundary India and Pakistan in way that it cut across the rivers and canal making India the upper beneficiary and Pakistan the lower beneficiary, It also handed over the control over two important headwork’s over river Ravi (Madhupure Head works) and Sutlej (Fe!;ozpure Head works) to India. There was no reason of assigning these head works to India, as these two Headwork’s used to control the flow and distribution of water in the area that were included in Pakistan, except to put the economic life of Pakistan in danger.
It was announced on July I, 1947that Indian army would also be divided in ratio 65 to 35 in India’s favor it was with reference of the communal balance present in the B r i tis h In d i a n Arm y. Whatever Pakistan received was nothing but scrap and out of order machines, broken weapons, unserviceable artillery and aircraft. There were f sordnence factories and all were located in India. Pakistan was given 60 million rupees towards its share in the ordnance factories. Division of financial assets: At the time of division there was cash balance of 4 billion rupees in the reserve Bank of India which was to be divided between India and Pakislan in the ratio of 17 to India and 5 to Pakistan. Pakistan was to receive 750 million rupees, which was in initially delayed by the Indian Government. After the protest of Pakistan, India agreed to pay 200million rupees. As the war between India and Pakistan had started on the issue of Kashmir India again stopped the rest of the amount by saying that Pakistan could use it to buy arms. After the protest from Pakistan and the threat of hunger strike by Gandhi, Nehru was forced to pay another 500′ million rupees. However the remaining 50 million rupees are still not paid. The money was Pakistan’s rightful share. India deliberately withholds it because they hoped that Pakistan would become bankrupt.
6. ISSUE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE:
Immediately after the. establishment of Pakistan language controversy was started between East and West Pakistan when the members of the Constituent Assembly belonged to East Pakistan demanded that instead of Urdu, Bengali should be made national language of Pakistan. Liaquat Ali Khan then the Prime Minister of Pakistan refused to accept the demand, which created resentment among East Pakistan. Refusal of the demand ultimately
transformed into a political movement. In March