SECTION “A” (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options:
(i) Karachi, the biggest city of Pakistan has a population of about:
* 5 millions
* 10 millions
* 15 millions
* 20 millions
(ii) Shah Waliullah was born in a village near Dehli in the year:
* 1703 A.D.
* 1603 A.D.
* 1520 A.D.
* 1423 A.D.
(iii) The total length of Shahrah-e-Pakistan is:
* 1935 km
* 1835 km
* 1735 km
* 1635 km
(iv) The education provided in classes IX and X is called:
* Higher Secondary
(v) The agriculture sector provides raw material for the need of the country is about:
(vi) The Quaid-e-Azam explained the separate Muslim identity in the year:
* 1930 A.D.
* 1941 A.D.
* 1945 A.D.
* 1947 A.D.
(vii) The constitution of 1962 was framed by:
* General Ayub Khan
* General Yahya Khan
* General Pervez Musharaf
* None of them
(viii) Among the atomic power countries of the world,Pakistan occupies:
* 1st Position
* 5th Position
* 6th Position
* 7th Position
(ix) The number of industrial labour employed in the textile industry of Pakistan is about:
(x) The number of big cities in Pakistan is:
(xi) Amongst most thickly populated counties of the world Pakistan stands:
(xii) An institution, Sindhi· Language Authority has been established for the promotion of Sind hi language in the year:
(xiii) The present care-taker Chief Minister of Sindh is:
* Syed Qaim Ali Shah
* Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan
* Arbab Ghulam Rahim
* Zahid Qurban Alvi
(xiv) The largest canal system of irrigation in the world is in:
(xv) The Second Islamic Summit Conference was held at Lahore in the year:
SECTION “B” (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
NOTE: Answer any 12 questions from this Section. No answer should exceed 3 to 4 sentences.
2.(i) Write down any three National Objectives of Pakistan.
(i) Protection of national ideology and identity.
(ii) Struggle for the establishment of welfare state.
(iii) Promotion of peace efforts at international regional levels.
(ii) Write down three problems of educational sector of Pak.
Following are the main problems in education:
(1) Attitude of the Feudal:
The feudal system is the major obstacle in the way of education of the poor children. The parents are poor and can hardly afford educational expenses of their children.
(2) High Fees of Private Educational Institutions:
Private sector educational institutions charge high fees as compared to the facilities provided there. Teachers are over worked but paid low salaries.
(3) Shortage of Text Books:
Text Book Board gets the text books printed late. The price of text books is very high. Private schools provide their own books imported from other countries which are extremely expensive.
(iii) Write the name of three Provincial Languages of Pakistan and also write the name of one poet related to each language.
(1) Punjabi – spoken in Punjab, famous poet is Waris Shah
(2) Sindhi – spoken in Sindh, famous poet is Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai
(3) Pushto – spoken in Khyber Puktoon Khawa, famous poet is Rehman Baba.
(iv) Write down any three steps to be taken for the development of industries in Pakistan.
The following are the steps which have been taken by the Government to develop the Industry:
(1) In 1948, an industrial policy was announced which encouraged private investment in the industrial field.
(2) In 1962, Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) was setup by the government.
(3) Foreign investors have also been invited and encouraged to invest in Pakistan.
(v) Write any 3 agricultural problems of Pak.
(a) Literacy rate of the country is quite low, Majority of Our farmer are not educated.
(b) They have little knowledge about the modern farmers.
(c) The number of people who depend on agriculture is increasing, the result in decrease in per capita.
(vi) Write down any three effects of the climate on the human life.
(i) In the Northern Mountainous Region, the winter season is very cold and severe. The mountainous area receives heavy snowfall. Normally the temperature goes down below freezing points in winter months. People are confined within four walls of their homes. They are unable to work out door in winters.
(ii) The summer here is pleasant and short. The life returns to normally win full swing. There are limited opportunities of earning the people of these area, go out to various parts of the country of emigrate abroad in search of wealth.
(iii) The southern area is a desert land. In the area where water is available people do some farming other lead a nomadic life and move with their sheep’s and cattle’s from place to place in search of grass and shrubs.
(vii) Why was East Pak. separated from West Pak? Write three causes of separation.
The causes of separation of East Pakistan are follows
(i) The distance between the two parts of Pakistan was more than 1600 kilometers separated by India.
(ii) Imposition of Martial Laws created a sense of deprivation among the people of East Pakistan.
(iii) Army started military action against the separatist movement of Awami League. This created hatred among Bengalis and they also started armed struggle.
(iv) East Pakistan wanted complete provincial autonomy.
(viii) Write any three objectives of the establishment of All India Muslim League.
(a) To establish good friendly relations between the British Govt. and Muslims.
(b) To co-ordinate with other nations and political parties in the sub- continent for common welfare.
(c) To protect the right of the Muslims by seeking co-operation of the government and other parties.
(ix) Write down any three basic sources of Islamic Ideology.
Fundamentals sources of Islamic Ideology:
(a) The Holy Qur’an: The Our’an is the permanent basis of Islam. It provides detailed guidance to the people, concerning social and economic laws, leading to a sustainable, peaceful and purposeful life at the individual and collective levels.
(b) Sunnah: Our Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h.) elaborated the injunctions of Islam by his words and deeds. The detailed explanation of the teachings of the Holy Our’an is found in the Sunnah, which is the essential source of Islamic laws & principle
(c) Traditions and Cultural Values: The values and traditions, such as festivals, gathering and ceremonies which do not run opposite to the teachings of Islam, are allowed to be followed by the Muslims in their respective regions.
(x) Write down any three points of the Fourteen Points of the Quaid-e-Azam.
(i) The form of future constitution should “be federal with the residuary power vested in the provinces.
(ii) In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third.
(iii) Any territorial redistribution shall not affect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and N.W.F.P.
(xi) Write down any three objectives of education of the Information Technology.
(i) To modernize the education with the help of Information Technology.
(ii) Making children of all ages familiar with information technology and preparing them for future.
(iii) Getting access to latest information and research material through internet.
(xii) Write down any 3 uses of E-Commerce.
(i) Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services.
(ii) E-commerce is usually associated with buying and selling over the Internet, or conducting any transaction involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods or services through a computer-mediated network.
(iii) E-commerce is the use of electronic communications and digital information.
(xiii) Write down three sentences on the Pakistan Resolution.
The annual session of Muslim League was held in Lahore in March 1940, Maulvi Fazlul Haq presented a resolution about the future of the Muslims of subcontinent. It was unanimously passed. By the Pakistan Resolution, the Muslim League had decided its goal and had set up a plan for the Political struggle of Muslims for the establishment of a new state.
(xiv) Write down any three sentences of Universal Peace and Brotherhood.
The present world has practically shrunk into a global village. Modern scientific developments, technologies and communications have reduced the distance. Nations of the world have come closer to each other. An atmosphere of brotherhood has come into existence. United Nations has also played a vital role in bringing the nations of the world closer to each other.
(xv) Write any three objectives of the movement of Shah Wali Ullah.
(1) He also wrote the ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali to save the Muslims of India from the atrocities of Marathas. There upon Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1761, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas at the third battle for Panipat.
(2) Shah Waliullah tried to minimize the differences among the scholars of the Muslims.
(3) Shah Waliulla translated the Holy Quran in Persian language in 1738 which was published with the name of “Fatehul -Qur’an”. It was his great effort to make inform common people about the teaching of the Holy Quran. After this his son Shah Rafi-ullah translated the Holy Quran in Urdu Language.
SECTION “C” (DETAILED-ANSWER QUESTION)
Note: Attempt 2 questions from this section.
3.(a)What is meant by welfare state? What is the concept of an Islamic Welfare State?
Welfare State means a state, which eradicates ignorance, poverty, misery and injustice and provides basic civic amenities to its citizens. It makes adequate arrangement for food, clothing and shelter. A welfare state is a state, which adopts all measures of bringing comfort and entertainment to the general public and masses. A welfare state is the name of an ideal social condition. A condition where justice prevails in all spheres of social life. The primary aim of a welfare state is the material and moral well being of its citizen.
There are some duties of welfare state. It is necessary for every welfare state to act upon these duties. These are suggestions which make Pakistan a welfare state. Important duties of a welfare state are following:
(1) A welfare state provides equal opportunities for progress. For example education is a fundamental right of every citizen.
(2) The first duty of every welfare state is the establishment of law- and order situation so that the protection of life and property of every citizen could be made possible.
(3) The establishment of such system of equality provides equal opportunities of survival to all citizens are the duty of a welfare state. For the establishment of supremacy of law, a free judiciary system is necessary so that each citizen could receive his legal rights.
(4) In the modern period, no country can survive without the co-operation of other countries. Each country has its own free foreign policy which fulfills its national objectives.
(5) A welfare states controls the economic activities in such a way which provides the protection of the right and interests of all classes of a society.
(6) A welfare state provides all educational facilities to its citizens so that every citizen could get modern knowledge and training according to his ability.
(7) It is the duty of a welfare state to improve the causes of international peace so that world could be a happy place and the human race could be saved from the destruction wars.
3.(b)What are the causes of growth of population in Pakistan? Describe the effects of growing population in education.
CAUSES OF POPULATION GROWTH:
Following are the causes of population growth in Pak.
(i) Majority of the people believe that Allah is the sustainer and Provider. Many people think that having a large family is a source of strength. They also consider family planning contrary to Islamic teachings.
(ii) Family planning practices have not gained popularity in the Pakistani society as yet.
(iii) The low literacy rate also contributes to the higher population growth.
(iv) Early marriages also add to the growth of children.
(v) Poverty is yet another reason. The growth rate among the poor is greater as compared to other groups of society. The reason is that they don’t bother. about the standard of life and providing good education to their children.
(vi) The desire for a male child results in producing more children. In the rural areas, more male children are considered to be an asset for the family and a sign of pride among the kith and kin and others.
EFFECTS ON EDUCATION:
The importance of education in Pakistan is much but due to the growing population, high standard of the education could not be achieved till now. The literacy rate in Pakistan is very low inspite of all efforts have been made by the government. The standard of Primary education is far from satisfactory. The teachers at the middle level are dissatisfied with the level of primary education and secondary school teachers complain about the standard of education at middle level and so on. The students admitted in medical colleges are mostly unsuccessful in the first professional examination. Government has started a programme of public-private partnership for increasing primary level education. Government has also started a scheme. Under the scheme thousands of non-formal schools are being opened to improve the literacy rate and provide facilities to primary education.
4.(a)Write the Principles of democracy in Islam.
Democracy is a form of government in which all the people of the state select the representatives for the government through their votes.
PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY IN ISLAM:
In Islam the concept of democracy is different from the rest of the world. In an Islamic democracy such people are elected to run the affairs of the state who follow the Islamic principles in their lives and are able to work according to the teachings of The Holy Quran and Sunnah.
Following are the principles on which the foundation of democracy in Islam has been established.
The first principle of Islam is that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah. The representatives for the government have to use their power with in the limits prescribed by Islam. Even the legislative assemblies cannot go beyond this.
Establishment of justice in the society is the second basic principle of democracy in Islam. No aspect of life can be complete without justice. It makes any society peaceful and prosperous. A society having supreme justice enjoys unity, live, sincerity and peace
Equality is the third important principles of democracy in Islam. There is no difference among the people on the basic of language, caste, color, culture, wealth and poverty. In his last sermon the holy prophet declared that “All human beings are offspring of Hazrat Adam and no Arab is superior to a non-Arab.
Fraternity as brotherhood is the fourth important principle of democracy in Islam. In the Holy Quran Allah has sad that all believers are brothers to each other. The feeling of brother hood promotes affection, mutual, co-operation, selfless service and sacrifice. In this way, the society becomes peaceful.
4.(b)Describe the Salient features of the Constitution of 1973.
After the separation of east Pakistan, the elected representatives of west Pakistan were called to frame a constitution. The draft prepared by· the Committee was approved in April 1973, the constitution was promulgated in the country on 14 August 1973.
(i) The foundation of 1973 constitution was also laid on the objective Resolution.
(ii) The Country was declared as Islamic Republic of Pakistan and Islam was made the official religion of the state.
(iii) The offices of President and Prime Minister of Pakistan were restricted for the Muslims only.
(iv) The Objective Resolution was included in the constitution as its preamble.
(v) Muslim shall be enabled to lead their individual’s lives as well as collective life in accordance with the Principles set in the Holy Quran and Sunnah.
(vi) Federal and Parliamentary form of Govt. was introduced. The Prime Minister was delegated wide powers and the authority of the president was curtained, the President could not pass important order with out Prime Minister.
(vii) The Provincial government were granted autonomy.
(viii) In order to protect rights of the people necessary squared were Provided to ensure independence of Judiciary.
5.(a)Describe the importance of Urdu as a national language.
The importance of National Language is evident as at the time of creation of Pakistan, Muslims were introduced as a separate nation on the basis of religion, culture as we” as language. Sir Syed, Allama Iqbal, Shibli Nomani, Quaid-e-Azam and a number of leaders preferred Urdu to Hindi and English. Thus proved that other than Islam Urdu is the next entity of Muslims of subcontinent.
Urdu language is comprised of alphabets of various languages. It comprises of Arabic, Persian, Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, Balochi, Saraiki and Kashmiri. Due to its easiness and simplicity it is used not only in Pakistan but also in most of the countries of the world. It is counted as an .international language.
Urdu is not a newly born language. We have received it ininheritance from our forefathers. In ancient time, the Arians came to Asia, they spoke Sansikrit with the passage of time, in addition with weal language, their came changes in it and them it came to be known us PRAKRAT.
Various Muslims rulers ruled over India. They spoke Persian, which came into existence by amalgamation of Arabic and Turkish. Therefore in Parakrit with addition of Persian a new language came into existence, which was impure of raw Urdu, and with the passage of time now it is highly refined.
Urdu has a precious storage of poem and prose and it is – gradually increasing. It is educational as we” as official language of Pakistan as we” as a symbol of unity and honour for the people of Pakistan.
Culture and customs are lifeblood of a nation. These culture and customs distinguishes a country and nation from another. People of various nations spends their life in accordance with their religion, social and cultural requirements, as we” as language plays an important role in a nations way of living.
A country consists of provinces and provinces consist of cities, towns and villages various languages are spoken in different areas and cities and then in provinces. Through regional languages have heir-own importance but their always exits need for a national languages. A national language is a symbol of unity among various parts of country as well as a communicating media among people of various regions of a country.
5.(b)Write a note on any One of the following:
(i) Main Minerals of Pakistan:
The mineral found in Pakistan are:
(i) Mineral Oil
(ii) Natural Gas
(v) lime Stone
(ix) Iron Ore
(i) Mineral Oil:
It is not used in factories and mills as a fuel, but the transport system also depends on it. Moreover, it is domestic use also as a cheap fuel. Pakistan is an oil rich country but due to slow process of exploration the discovery of oil fields, commercially useful has been very few. The oil resources of Pakistan are located in Potohar Plateau, Khor, Dhullian, Kot Mayyab, Attock, Chakwal, Jehlum, Dhodak, Badin, Hyderabad, Sanghar and Dadu districts.
(ii) Natural Gas:
Natural gs is a comparatively cheaper and the most efficient source of energy in Pakistan. Natural gas is required for running industry and is used as fuel, for vehicles and household purposes. Pakistan has vast reserves of gas. The oil fields producing gas in the country are located at the following places:
Sui, Uch, Khairpur, Mazrani, Bari, Sandahk, Dhodak, Piroh, Dhullian, Meyal, Murree, Badin, Golarchi and Turk. The gas is used in cement fertilizer and general industries. It is also used for producing tnermal electricity.
(iii) Iron Ore:
Iron ore is used for making iron, steel, machines and tools of different kind. The iron ore deposits found in Pakistan fall short to meet our requirement. Pakistan imports iron ore only for Steel Mill at Bin Qasim Karachi. Iron ore deposit occur at a number of places, like Kalabagh, Makarwal, Chitral, Hazara, Khuzdar, Chilghazi, Muslim Bagh, Noukundi, Chaghi etc.
Coal is an important source of energy. Coal is one of the principal minerals found in Pakistan. Availability of high quality coal is a basic need of industry. Coal, found in our country is 0 low quality. It is mainly used in brick and lime burning, the ceramics industry, ginning Mills and for firing the boilers of power station and steam engines. The big deposits of coal in Pakistan are located at the following places:
(i) The Salt Range and Makarwal Coal field.
(ii) The Northeastern Balochistan Coal fields.
(iii) Sindh Coal fields.
Chromate is very important metallic mineral. It is used in making stainless steel, high speed tools precision instrument, .dyes and photography. Pakistan is the top producer of this metal in the world. A large quantity of Chromate is exported to other countries. The deposit of chromate are found at Muslim Bagh, Chaghai, Kharan, Malakand, Mohmand and North Waziristan.
Copper is an important industrial metal. It is used in electric goods and especially in making copper-wire. The deposits of copper are found at various places in the NWFP and Balochistan province. The most important deposits of copper occur in Sandak and Amori in the district of Chaghai.
(vii) lime Stone:
Limestone is largely used in making cement, ceramics and other allied industries. Many cement factories have been established at the places where limestone is commonly found in large quantities. Limestone is also used in construction work. Limestone is available in large quantities at Dandot, Dawoodkhel, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi,
Sulphur is an important mineral, which is used, in Chemical industries, fire arm industry and match factories. It is also used for gunpowder. It is found in Koh-e-Sultan, Jacobabad and Mardan. it is refined and made suitable for use at the factories established at Karachi and Quetta.
Marble is another mineral wealth which is found in abundance in NWFP and Balochistan province. It is of several goods kind and colours. The best kind of marble is found at Mull Chori near Peshawar. Marble is used for flooring and fixing at wall for beautification. Pakistan earns a good amount of foreign exchange by selling this mineral. Multi colour marble found in Pakistan has great demand in foreign countries. Marble is found in the district of Chaghai, Mardan, Sawat, Khyber Agency, Attock District, Mirpur and Muzaffarabad.
Salt is used in cocking, it is also used in the manufacture of washing soda and hydrochloric acid. Vast deposits of mineral salt are found in Khewra, Warrach, Kalabagh, Bahadukhel and Kark. The country has one of the largest deposits of Rock Salt of the wcirld Salt is also obtained from Sea water at Karachi and Makran Coast.
Gypsum is a non-metallic mineral. It is a bright stone of white colour. Gypsum is a valuable source of wealth. It is used for making Cement, Plaster of Paris, fertilizers and boards. It is largely used in a number of small industries. Gypsum in large quantity is found and obtained from the following areas. District Jhelum, Mianwali, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Sibi, Loralai, Kohat, Bhawalpur, Dadu and Thar.
(ii) Importance of the location of Pakistan:
Pakistan is situated in the North West of South Asia. On . the globe it is located between the latitudes 23.45° and 36.75° north, and between longitudes 61° and 75.5° east. In the north the border of Pakistan touches China. In the Northwest lies Afghanistan. In the west there is Iran. In the East of Pakistan lies India and in the South there is Arabian Sea. The total area of pakistan is 796096 sq. km.
IMPORTANCE OF LOCATION PAKISTAN:
Pakistan’s geographical location is very important. China, Russia and India are our neighbors. After the advent of Russia in Afghanistan, the friendly countries of Pakistan have realized importance of Pakistan. Pakistan has friendly relations with its neighbors, and trade relations are increasing. With China Pakistan have trade and other relation. The land route between Europe and the East also passes through Pakistan. In addition it provides a contact between European and Asian Countries.
Pakistan is the nearest country to Europe and America in the area of South-West-Asia. As such the southwestern Asian countries do their. trade with European countries, through Pakistan. The ships going to America and Europe, from south East Asia, for east and Australia pass through the seaport of Karachi, Pakistan. Also the air routs from Europe to Asia countries pass through Pakistan.
In this way the location of Pakistan has great importance.
(iii) Teacher’s Training:
Teachers play a crucial role in the system of education. It is important that these teachers are equipped with proper knowledge, skills and attitudes in carrying out the goals of education and fulfilling their obligations.
There are three levels of teachers training.
(i) Primary school teachers:
Teachers for the primary schools are trained, and must have passed Secondary School examination. They are provided one year training. After completion of this training they are awarded a certificate called Primary Teachers Certificate (PTC).
(ii) Middle school teachers:
Those who possess FA/F.Sc certificate are given one year training and awarded a certificate called Certificate in Education (CT). PTC and CT training is provided by the Government Colleges of Elementary Education (GCE).
(iii) Secondary school teachers:
Those who possess BA/B.Sc degrees are provided one year training called ‘Bachelor of Education’ (B.Ed) at the Government Colleges of Education. Those who further want to specialize in the subject of education undergo one year course called Master in Education (M.Ed). This course is conducted by the Colleges of Education and in the Institutes of Education in the Universities. Teachers also do M.Phii and Ph.D in Education from the Universities.
Allama Iqbal Open University has started teacher training courses through its distance education system for those students who cannot afford to attend formal regular courses in the teacher training institutions.
National Education Policy provides for modernizing the courses in teacher training.
(iv) Two-Nation Theory:
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan first time proclaimed in India in 1867 that the Muslims are a separated nation. Hindus became vary annoyed with Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and forgot that Sir Syed first time imparted upon the British rulers that so long would give participation to India in their administration, the mutiny like of 1887 would continue to take place.
Although the Muslims leaders did not pay their serious attention towards the suggestion extended by Allama Iqbal in the beginning of 1930 that a Muslims state should be established in North West of India but he succeeded in arousing the Islamic sprite amongst the Muslims and they began to think over the suggestion of Iqbal by the end of 1930.
Father of Nation Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, understanding the depth of the thoughts of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal at last proclaimed, that there were two nations living in India, Hindu and Muslims and both could not live together. Muhammad Ali Jinnah extended the ‘Two Nation Theory’ in detail so effectively that the demands for Pakistan by Muslim League was based on; Two Nation Theory’. This Theory can be explained as under:
Hindu Mat and Islam represent two different cultures and are quite different in their origin and constitution. Their life style and traditions don’t match any point. The motive of a Muslim is nothing but to establish the unicity and sovereignty of Almighty Allah and to impart upon that He is only to be worshiped. On the contrary, a Hindu- believes that this world is a Maya Jaal (trao of wealth) and an illusion. Hindu concept of wealth makes him wealth worshiper therefore, wealth becomes God for them while is “nothing for a Muslim except the source of provision of live hood.
The legal system and the personal laws of Hindus and Muslims are quite different. The traditions, languages, social needs and customs, food and so much so the dress of Muslims is quite different than those of Hindus. Hindus burn their dead while the Muslims bury them. In other words, Hindus and Muslims are quite different right from birth till death and nothing is common in them.
The history of both the nations is also different. War and Peace, for Hindus is for the self-while war is jihad (battle in the name of Allah) for the Muslims. Both war and peace are establishing the rule of Almighty Allah. Moreover, Muslims fights for making people free from slavery, for flourishing humanity and the freedom.
Hindus were in majority while the Muslims in minority in India and if any parliamentary system could have been developed on the basis of majority, it would have nothing but the Hindu rule. It was therefore, needed that there should have a constitution, which could confer that there were two nations living in India, thereby they should have the land of their own in proportion of their number keeping this, theory in view, Quaid -e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah after the Pakistan Resolution passed, said in his presidential address in the session of Muslim league held in Lahore in 1940.
“Muslims are not in minority because British and specially congress understands the same when they say, ‘after all, you are in minority and what do you want?’ The fact is that the Muslims are not in minority because there are many areas < even in the British maos of India where Muslims are in majority like Bengal Punjab, North West Frontier province and Balochistan: .
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, at the time of extending the Two Nation Theory’ was certainly influenced by _the thoughts of Allama Iqbal as reflected from his following ‘Speech:
“It is not difficult to understand that any our Hindu friends could not comprehend the real nature of Hindu Mat and Islam. These are not two religions but the two different social orders and it would be no more than a dream that both two nations can from a common nationalism. The wrong concept has created many problems for us and if we can’t realize the need of the time India would continue to move towards disaster. Hindu and Muslims have two different religious philosophies, social customs, traditions and cultures. Neither they marry mutually no they sit together nor they eat with one another. Both belong to the different cultures therefore, Muslims are right to demand for a separated homeland for them”.