SECTION “An (MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS)
1. Choose the correct answer for each from the given options.
(i) The name of Pakistan of was proposed by:
* Maulana Shaukat Ali
* Chaudhry Rehmat Ali
* Chaudhery Nisar Ali
* Chaudhry Barkat Ali
(ii) The Pakistan resolution was passed in the year A.D.:
(iii) All India Muslim League was established in the year A.D.
(iv) Allama Muhammad Iqbal died in the year A.D.:
(v) Economic Development leads to:
(vi) The total length of Pakistan coast is kilometres:
(vii) The first Educational Conference of Pakistan was held in the year A.D.:
(viii) The basic ideology of Pakistan is based on:
(ix) The Sindh became a separate province in the year:
(x) The old name of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was:
(xi) The biggest salt mine in the world is in the province of:
* Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
(xii) Allama Muhammad Iqbal gave his presidential address at Allahabad in:
* 1931 A.D.
* 1930 A.D.
* 1940 A.D.
(xiii) Quaid-e-Azam said in his address to the Government officers that they are the nation’s:
(xiv) The natural gas was first found in Pakistan at a place:
(xv) East Pakistan got separated from us in A.D.:
SECTION ‘B’ (SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS)
Note: Answer any Twelve questions from this Section. All questions carry equal marks. No answer should exceed 03 to 04 sentences.
(i) Describe the 3 duties of a Welfare State.
Important duties of Welfare state are following:
(1) A welfare state provides equal opportunities for progress. For example education is a fundamental right of every citizen.
(2) The first duty of every welfare state is the establishment of law and order situation so that the protection of life and property of every citizen could be made possible.
(3) A welfare states controls the economic activities in such a way which provides the protection of the right and interests of all classes of a society.
(ii) Write three main objectives of Aligarh Movement.
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan made social and Political efforts which are collectively known as Aligarh Movement Sir Syed Ahmed emphasized the need for maintaining friendly relations with the British to earn their good will. Sir Syed Ahmed stressed upon Muslims to learn modern knowledge. He set up a scientific society at Ghazipur in 1862 and Later on raised to the Aligarh Movement:
Level of a college named Aligarh College. He maturated the Muslims to learn English language and scientific knowledge. He made great services in social way, thus Aligarh movement became a source of strength for the Muslims in the sub continent.
(iii) Describe the importance of Urdu as the National Language in three sentences.
(i) Urdu is used as a common speaking language in all provinces of Pakistan .
(ii) Urdu language is an easy and comprehensive language, one can easily understand and speak Urdu by doing some efforts.
(iii) The words of many international as well as local language are used in Urdu language.
(iv) What are the three causes of growth of population in Pakistan?
(i) Early marriage particularly in rural areas.
(ii) Religions and social attitudes of people and general tendency to prefer larger families.
(iii) Illiterate and poverty ridden society unaware of the responsibilities of married life.
(v) Write down three sentences on the National Development.
National development is a process of advancement in economic and social sector. It plays a vital role in the development of a country. It provides employment according to their skill. Valuable foreign exchange can be earned and helps country to become self reliant and prosperous.
(vi) Write three importance problems of the agriculture of Pakistan.
(i) Water logging and salinity are the major problem in which underground water level rises up to the surface and salt and other harmful chemical which come up make land unproductive.
(ii) Shortage of rainfall not only affects natural water supply but also makes the water level drop in the rivers.
(iii) Agriculturists have hardly adopted modern methods and that is why the yield per acre is very low.
(vii) Write any three important duties of an individual in a welfare state.
(1) It is our duty to be loyal and faithful to our country and we should be prepared to offer any kind of sacrifice for the sake of our country and nation.
(2) It is the duty of every citizen to respect the rights of his fellow countrymen. Good citizen is the one from whom the life, honour and property of the other citizen are safe.
(3) It is the duty of public to make proper use of the public facilities provided by the government, without any wastage.
(viii) Name the 3 neighbouring countries of Pak
Our neighboring countries are:
(ix) What is environmental pollution? Describe three sentences.
(1) The addition of such elements on components in air, which put injuries influences on human life, animal and plants is called air pollution.
(2) Water which is obtained naturally from rivers, seas, lakes and springs, the addition of such elements and compounds in water which put injurious influences and human life is called water pollution.
(3) The earth is polluted biologically, chemically and physiologically, when a number of harmful things are inducted earth.
(x) What is two Nation theory?
There are two nations Muslims and Hindus in India. Their religion, culture and philosophy of life are different. The two nations cannot live together due to the basic difference given above.
(xi) What were the three objectives of the Faraizi Movement.
The three objects of Faraizi Movement are:
(i) To make the society pure from Hindu tradition.
(ii) To reform the faith of Muslims and protect them from shirk.
(iii) To improve the conditions of the Muslims farmer and encourage them.
(xii) What are the three uses of E-Commerce?
(i) Electronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services.
(ii) E-commerce is usually associated with buying and selling over the Internet, or conducting any transaction involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods or services through a computer-mediated network.
(iii) E-commerce is the use of electronic communications and digital information.
(xiii) State three characteristics by culture.
Culture is the combination of traditions and customs, collective and individual behaviour during peace and war, methods borrowed from others, science, religion and art which is not the heritage of past only but also the analysis of future.
SECTION ‘C’ (DETAILED ANSWER QUESTIONS)
Note: Answer any Two questions from this Section.
3.(a)Describe the views of the Quaid-e-Azam or Allama Iqbal the Ideology of Pakistan.
IDEALOGY OF PAKISTAN IN THE LIGHT OF ALLAMA IQBAL STATEMENTS:
In 1930 at Allahabad he delivered his presidential addressed.
“India is a subcontinent and not a country. Where people belonging to different religions and speaking different languages are inhabited. Muslim nation has its unique and religious and cultural identity. All civilized nations should respect religious principles, cultural and social values of Muslims.”
The address of Allama Iqbal proved a mile stone in the struggle for Pakistan.
IDEALOGY OF PAKISTAN IN THE LIGHT OF STATEMENT OF QUAID-E-AZAM:
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was very anxious about the future of the Muslims of South Asia. His views about the idealogy of Pakistan were very clear. Ha said
“Pakistan had come into being the day the first non- Muslim was converted in to a Muslim in India.”
In 1941 he elaborated the separate status of the Muslim Nation by saying:
“India had never been a single country or a nation. The issue of sub continent is international. The differences on culture, social and economic values are of ideological nature.”
3.(b)Mention the role of Shah Walliullah in the Revolutionist Movement.
HAZRAT SHAH WALIULLAH
Hazrat Shah Waliullah Muhaddis Dehlvi was born on February 21,1703. His real name was Qutubuddin.
Hazrat Shah Waliullah played a great role to control the downfall of the Muslims in South Asia, he made efforts to reform the educational and religious conditions of the Muslims. He tried to explain the real teachings of Islam. The review of the role of Shah Waliullah in the revivalist movement of Islam in South Asia is following.
(1) Shah Waliullah very minutely the factors for the downfall and concluded that it has due to the increasing influence of the non-Muslims. The military strength of the Muslims had collapsed and they were at the mercy of the tribal might of Jats and Marathas. Shah Waliullah realized that if Muslims did not abide by Islam, they would gradually lose their status. In these circumstances, he planned to revive Islamic teachings and values in the sub-continent.
(2) Shah Waliullah wrote open letters to the Mughal emperors of that time, the Nizam of Hyderabad Deccan, Rohila Sardar Hafizul Malik and Najibuddula. He warned them about the declining state of the Muslims in the sub-continent.
(3) He also wrote the ruler of Afghanistan Ahmed Shah Abdali to save the Muslims of India from the atrocities of Marathas. There upon Ahmed Shah Abdali in 1761, inflicted a crushing defeat on the Marathas at the third battle for Panipat.
(4) Shah Waliullah tried to minimize the differences among the scholars of the Muslims.
(5) Shah Waliullah translated the Holy Quran in Persian language in 1738 which was published with the name of “Fateh-ul-Qur’an”. It was his great effort to make inform common people about the teaching of the Holy Quran. After this his son Shah Rafl-ullah translated the Holy Quran in Urdu Language.
(6) Shah Waliullah also wrote books on Hadith, Islamic jurisprudence and Tafseer. The most popular among these is his famous work “Hujjat-ul-La-Hal-Baligha”. The message of this work is that Islam is the universal religion. It guarantees progress and prosperity for the whole of man kind.
Hazrat Shah Waliullah was the great politician and thinker of his time. Shah Waliullah presented comprehensive theories about the fundamental rights and economic balance.
4.(a)What are the objectives of information Technology (I.T.) in the field of education in Pakistan?
Information Technology is an innovation in the field of telecommunication. Due to Information Technology, data can be transferred to thousand kilometers away through the internet. The importance of Information Technology has been recognized in Pakistan.
The objectives of innovative programme of IT in education in Pakistan are:
(i) To modernize the educational system of Pakistan by introducing information technology at all levels.
(ii) To provide access to research and modern information through the internet.
(iii) To familiarize information technology among the children of all ages and prepare them for the future.
(iv) To emphasize the varied roles of computers as a learning tool in the classroom.
(v) To employ communication technology for the training of teachers and other educational activities.
4.(b)Why was East Pakistan separated from West Pakistan?
The following are the causes of separation of East Pakistan:
(1) GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:
The distance between the two parts of Pakistan was more than sixteen hundred kilometers separated by India. The people of both the parts could not come closer to each other. This created misunderstanding among the people of East and West Pakistan. India took advantage of this misunderstanding and started vicious propaganda against the people of West Pakistan to misguide the people of East Pakistan.
(2) DIFFERENCEIN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE:
The problems of the people of both provinces were different. Hence they could not develop understanding with each other. The officers belonging to East Pakistan were more friendly and closer to the people. They tried to solve their problems. On the contrary the officers from West Pakistan, when posted in East Pakistan had a different attitude towards the people. They maintained a distance from the people. This created a sense of hatred against West Pakistan. The people of East Pakistan started feeling that they were not made real partners in the administration of the government.
(3) MARTIAL LAW:
Imposition of martial laws created a sense of deprivation among the people of East Pakistan. General Muhammad Ayub Khan accused the politicians that they were responsible for the failure of parliamentary system of government whereas the public leaders believed that Martial Laws were the real obstacle in the way of establishment of a parliamentary system of government.
(4) LANGUAGE ISSUE:
The federal government’s policy on the issue of official language was opposed by the people of East Pakistan. Demonstration was held against the government and a number of Bengali students lost their lives. This agitated the minds of Bengalis.
(5) PROVINCIAL AUTONOMY:
East Pakistan wanted complete provincial autonomy. This demand was not accepted till India had attacked East Pakistan in 1971
(6) ECONOMICDEPRIVATIONAND PROPAGANDA:
Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman, a leader of Awami League party in Bengal propagated that Bengalis were economically deprived and demanded separate economic system for East Pakistan. He presented a six-point manifesto of Awami League. He started developing secret relation with India. All India radio through its programmes created hatred in the hearts of Bengalis against the people of West Pakistan.
(7) ROLE OF HINDU TEACHERS:
A large number of Hindu teachers were teaching in the educational institutions in the East Pakistan. They produced such literature which created negative thinking in the- minds of Bengalis against the people of West Pakistan.
(8) INTERNATIONAL CONSPIRACIES:
About 10 millions Hindus were living in East Pakistan. India stood at the back of these Hindus to protect their interests. India wanted to separate East Pakistan to strengthen economic position of the Hindus. Many Hindus acted as spies for India.
(9) MUJIB’S MAJORITY IN THE ELECTIONS OF 1970:
In the General elections of December 1970, the Awami League of Sheikh Mujib gained a vital majority and won 167 out of a total of 169 seats. On winning the majority in the elections, Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman started increasing his demands, which were ignored by the military junta ruling Pak.
(10) MILITARY ACTION IN EAST PAKISTAN:
After the general elections of December 1970 the law and order situation in East Pakistan had gone from bad to worse. Instead of finding a political solution to the situation the then Military regime decided to suppress the Awami league. General Yahya Khan declared Awami League an illegal party and put an embargo on the political activities of Awami League. This fanned the flame. Army started military action against the separatist movement of Awami League. This created hatred among Bengalis and them also started-armed struggle.
(11) INDIA’S ATTACK:
As a result of military action, leaders of Awami League and a large number of Bengalis escaped to India. India started interfering in the affairs of Pakistan. India termed military action in East Pakistan as an attack on India. Sheikh Mujib had organized a semi-military organization, called “Mukti bahini”. It started guerrilla warfare against Pakistan Army. In its support, India also started attacks on Pakistan Army. On December 3, 1971 the war between Pakistan and India began. Due to the lack of support of the local populace and the poor arrangements of supply of men and material, Pakistani
soldiers surrendered before the Indian army on December 16, 1971 whereas the cease-fire on West Pakistan front was declared without launching a significant attack. On December 16, 1971 East Pakistan became an independent and free state of Bangladesh.
5.(a)What are the national objectives of Pak?
Pakistan is an Islamic state, there fore all fundamental national goals of Pakistan have determined according to Islamic ideology of the First fundamental goal is the establishment of Islamic society and the development of Islamic teaching.
(1) Setting up an Islamic Society:
The foremost national objective of Pakistan is the setting up of an Islamic society as per the teachings of Islamic and principles of democracy. Quaid-e-Azam had said that the purpose of the creation of Pakistan was not just obtaining a piece of land but objective was to establish a laboratory were we could practice principle of Islam.
(2) Struggle against Exploitation:
It is also a national objective of Pakistan to establish an Islamic Polity, based on the Principles of equality, Social Justice, mutual respect and cooperation. This is possible when people get equal opportunities for progress.
(3) State Security:
An important national goal of Pakistan is defense the state of the safeguard the country from internal and external janglers.
(4) Self Sufficiency:
Self sufficiency is used in extensive way but self sufficiency in Pakistan means to develop Pakistan economically. Pakistan must be made economically self sufficient. This would require sustained efforts at national level to work hard. Depend upon our own resources and promote education scientific knowledge.
(5) Unity with Muslim Countries:
The unity with Muslim countries is also a fundamental goal of Pakistan. It is also our national objective to promote unity among the Islamic countries and unite them on one platform. We have to strength is the role organization of Islamic countries (OIC) so that a uniform stand is taken on the issues concerning the interests of Muslim Ummah.
(6) Peace Initiates:
It is also a national goal of Pakistan to cooperate the efforts which are being done for international peace and prosperity. Promotion of international and regional peace, reformation of the unjust international economic system and elimination of racial discrimination are also our national objectives.
(b) What role should Pakistanis play for the prosperity of the country?
A state cares for the basic needs of its citizen and enable them to live a peaceful life. As a Pakistani following are our important duties for the progress, prosperity and development of our country
(a) Awareness about the national goals:
Only those nations progress whose people are aware about their national goals.
(b) Dignity of labour:
If we conscious of the value and dignity of labour we can achieved our goal.
National resources can properly utilized through advancement in scientific and technical knowledge.
(d) Guidance and encouragement:
The guidance and encouragement of trained and private sector is the need to continue our struggle for more development and make Pakistan a developed country.
(e) Welfare programmes:
Welfare programmes have been started with in the country such as health centre, industrial home and recreation centres.
5.(a) Mention the principles of Democracy in Islam.
Democracy is a form of government in which all the people of the state select the representatives for the government through their votes.
PRINCIPLES OF DEMOCRACY IN ISLAM:
In Islam the concept of democracy is different from the rest of the world. In an Islamic democracy such people are elected to run the affairs of the state who follow the Islamic principles in their lives and are able to work according to the teachings of The Holy Quran and Sunnah. Following are the principles on which the foundation of democracy in Islam has been established.
The first principle of Islam is that sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Allah. The representatives for the government have to use their power with in the limits prescribed by Islam. Even the legislative assemblies cannot go beyond this.
Establishment of justice in the society is the second basic principle of democracy in Islam. No aspect of life can be complete without justice. It makes any society peaceful and prosperous. A society having supreme justice enjoys unity, live, sincerity and peace.
Equality is the third important principles of democracy in Islam. There is no difference among the people on the basic of language, caste, color, culture, wealth and poverty. In his last sermon the holy
prophet declared that “All human beings are offspring of Hazrat Adam and no Arab is superior to a non-Arab.
Fraternity as brotherhood is the fourth important principle of democracy in Islam. In the Holy Quran Allah has sad that all believers are brothers to each other. The feeling of brother hood promotes affection, mutual, co-operation, selfless service and sacrifice. In this way, the society becomes peaceful.
(b) Write a note on anyone of the following:
(i) Objectives Resolution
(ii) Atomic (Nuclear) Energy
(iii) Mineral Resources of Pak.
(iv) Physical Features of Pak
(i) Objectives Resolution
In the history of constitution making in Pakistan, the Objective Resolution is an important document and a basic step to frame the constitution. It was approved on March 12, 1949. In this Resolution Islam was declared as the foundation of the Constitution of Pakistan. It was also declared that all powers and sovereignty rests with Almighty Allah. It was also declared that the principles of democracy. Equally and social justice which are described by Islam would be implemented in Pakistan. So that the people could reform their lives according to the teaching of Islam.
SALIENT FEATURES OF OBJECTIVE RESOLUTION:
(i) Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Almighty Allah. The political powers are sacred trust which shall be exercised by the representatives of the people within the limits prescribed by Islam.
(ii) The principles and concepts of democracy, equality & social justice enunciated by Islam shall be enforced within the country.
(iii) Muslims shall be enabled to lead their individuals as well as collective life in accordance with the principles set in the Holy Qur’an and Sunnah.
(iv) The rights of the minorities shall be protected. They will have the freedom the follow their religion and promote their own culture.
(v)Federal system of government will be introduced in Pakistan.
(vi) Fundamental rights of the citizen shall guarantee on the basis of equality and social justice.
(vii) The judiciary will be completely free and independent.
After the Objective Resolution was passed the Constitution-making process was taken in hand by the First Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. A number of committees were constituted. These committees, after detailed study, submitted their reports to the Constituent Assembly. But the recommendations could not be materialized and the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the Governor General, Ghulam Muhammad on October 24, 1954. Hence, during the seven years of stay of the Constituent Assembly (1947-1954), constitution for the country could not be prepared due to the political crisis and the struggle for power among the political
(ii) Atomic (Nuclear) Energy:
An important source of energy is nuclear energy. Uranium which is a heavy grey radioactive metallic element is used for the production of atomic energy. In Pakistan two atomic power houses are working. One is at Karachi which started its work in 1971 and the second is at Chasma in Mianwali. The Chasma plant started producing electricity in 2002.Its production capacity is 300 mega watts. A third atomic power project is being constructed at Chasma with the collaboration of China. Atomic energy is also used for peaceful purposes. lt is used in agricultural research. Atomic energy is used for the treatment of cancer.
(iii) Mineral Resources of Pakistan:
The mineral found in Pakistan are:
(i) Mineral Oil
(ii) Natural Gas
(vi) Iron Ore
(vii) Lime Stone
(i) Mineral Oil: It is not used in factories and mills as a fuel, but the transport system also depends on it. Moreover, it is domestic use also as a cheap fuel. Pakistan is an oil rich country but due to slow process of exploration the discovery of oil fields, commercially useful has been very few. The oil resources of Pakistan are located in Potohar Plateau, Khor, Dhullian, Kot Mayyab, Attock, Chakwal, Jehlum, Dhodak, Badin, Hyderabad, Sanghar and Dadu districts.
(ii) Natural Gas: Natural gas is a comparatively cheaper and the most efficient source of energy in Pakistan. Natural gas is required for running industry and is used as fuel, for vehicles and household purposes. Pakistan has vast reserves of gas. The oil fields producing gas in the country are located at the lollowing places:
Sui, Uch, Khairpur, Mazrani, Bari, Sandahk, Dhodak, Piroh, Dhullian, Meyal, Murree, Badin, Golarchi and Turk. The gas is used in cement fertilizer and general industries. It is also used for producing thermal electricity.
(iii) Iron Ore: Iron ore is used for making iron, steel, machines and tools of different kind. The iron ore deposits found in Pakistan fall short to meet our requirement. Pakistan imports iron ore only for Steel Mill at Bin Qasim Karachi. Iron ore deposit occur at a number of places, like Kalabagh, Makarwal, Chitral, Hazara, Khuzdar, Chilghazi, Muslim Bagh, Noukundi, Chaghi etc
(iv) Coal: Coal is an important source of energy. Coal is one of the principal minerals found in Pakistan. Availability of high quality coal is a basic need of industry. Coal, found in our country is of low quality. It is mainly used in brick and lime burning, the ceramics industry, ginning Mills and for firing the boilers of power station and steam engines. The big deposits of coal in Pakistan are located at the following places:
(i) The Salt Range and Makarwal Coal field.
(ii) The Northeastern Balochistan Coal fields.
(iii) Sindh Coal fields.
(v) Chromate: Chromate is very important metallic mineral. It is used in making stainless steel, high speed tools precision instrument, dyes and photography. Pakistan is the top producer of this metal in the world. A large quantity of Chromate is exported to other countries. The deposit of chromate are found at Muslim Bagh, Chaghai, Kharan, Malakand, Mohmand and North Waziristan.
(vi) Copper: Copper is an important industrial metal. It is used in electric goods and especially in making copper-wire. The deposits of copper are found at various places in the NWFP and Balochistan province. The most important deposits of copper occur in Sandak and Amori in the district of Chaghai.
(vii) Lime Stone: Limestone is largely used in making cement, ceramics and other allied industries. Many cement factories have been established at the places where limestone is commonly found in large quantities. Limestone is also used in construction work. Limestone is available in large quantities at Dandot, Dawoodkhel, Rohri, Hyderabad and Karachi.
(viii) Sulpher: Sulpher is an important mineral, which is used, in Chemical industries, fire arm industry and match factories. It is also used for gunpowder. It is found in Koh-e- Sultan, Jacobabad and Mardan. It is refined and made suitable for use at the factories established at Karachi and Quetta.
(ix) Marble: Marble is another mineral wealth, which is found in abundance in NWFP and Balochistan province. It is of several goods kind and colours. The best kind of marble is found at Mull Chori near Peshawar. Marble is used for flooring and fixing at wall for beautification. Pakistan earns a good amount of foreign exchange by selling this mineral. Multi colour marble found in Pakistan has great demand in foreign countries. Marble is found in the district of Chaghai, Mardan, Sawat, Khyber Agency, Attock District, Mirpur and Muzaffarabad.
(x) Salt: Salt is used in cocking, it is also used in the manufacture of washing soda and hydrochloric acid. Vast de,posits of mineral salt are found in Khewra, Warrach, Kalabagh, Bahadukhel and Kark. The country has one of the largest deposits of Rock Salt of the world Salt is also obtained from Sea water at Karachi and Makran Coast.
(xi) Gypsum: Gypsum is a non-metallic mineral. It is a bright stone of white colour. Gypsum is a valuable source of wealth. It is used for making Cement, Plaster of Paris, fertilizers and boards. It is largely used in a number of small industries. Gypsum in large quantity is found and obtained from the following areas.
District Jhelum, Mianwali, Dera Ghazi Khan, Quetta, Sibi, Loralai, Kohat, Bhawalpur, Dadu and Thar.
(iv) Physical Features of Pakistan:
Pakistan can be divided into following natural regions with respect to its geographical location.
(1) Mountainous Ranges:
(i) Northern and Eastern Mountains
(ii) North – Western and Western Mountains ..
(i) The Potowar Plateau
(ii) The Balochistan Plateau.
(3) The Desert:
(i) The Thai
(ii) Cholistan Desert
(iii) Thar and Naro Desert
(iv) The Chaghai and Kharan Desert.
(4) The Coastal Areas:
(i) Costal of Makran
(ii) Costal of Sindh.